Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts Deck (33)
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1

motivation

process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

2

maslow's hierarchy of needs

five needs - physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization. as each need becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. most recent research does not support this theory

3

two-factor theory of motivation (has not been well supported in research)

a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation hygiene theory. under this theory, the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction

4

which factors are related to achievement and job satisfaction?

advancement, achievement, responsibility, and job satisfaction.

5

mcclelland's theory of needs (has research support across cultures)

a theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation

6

need for achievement (nAch)

drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed

7

need for power (nPow)

the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise

8

need for affiliation (nAff)

the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

9

does personality moderate the effect of mclelland's needs have on motivation?

yes, factors like neuroticism can prevent one from fulfilling the nAff, whereas agreeableness supports fulfillment of this need

10

self-determination theory

a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation

11

cognitive evaluation theory

a version of the SDT in which allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling

12

what does the SDT suggest about providing rewards?

suggests some caution in the use of extrinsic rewards to motivate is wise and that pursuing goals from intrinsic motives is more sustaining to human motivation than are extrinsic rewards. providing extrinsic incentives can undermine intrinsic motivation

13

self-concordance

the degree to which people's reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values

14

goal-setting theory

a theory stating that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance

15

what does evidence suggest about setting goals?

specific goals increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easier goals, and that feedback leads to higher performance than does non-feedback

16

goal commitment

most likely to occur when employees expect that their efforts will pay off in goal attainment, when the accomplishing of the goal is attractive to them, and when they actively participate in goal setting

17

task characteristics

goals themselves seem to affect performance more strongly when tasks are simple rather than complex, and when the tasks are independent rather than interdependent

18

national culture

specific goals may have differing effects in different cultures, largely based on whether that culture is individualistic or collectivist

19

promotion focus

a self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals through advancement and accomplishment

20

prevention focus

a self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals by fulfilling duties and obligations

21

management by objectives

(MBO) a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress

22

self-efficacy theory

an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. you can boost self efficacy through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal

23

reinforcement theory

a theory of suggesting that behavior is a function of its consequences

24

behaviorism

a theory stating that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner

25

social learning theory

the view that we can learn though both observation and direct experience

26

expectancy theory

a theory stating that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual

27

equity theory

a theory stating that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities

28

organizational injustice

an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, information, and interpersonal justice

29

distributive justice

perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals

30

procedural justice

the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards