Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Motivation Concepts Deck (33)
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process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal


maslow's hierarchy of needs

five needs - physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization. as each need becomes substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. most recent research does not support this theory


two-factor theory of motivation (has not been well supported in research)

a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation hygiene theory. under this theory, the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction


which factors are related to achievement and job satisfaction?

advancement, achievement, responsibility, and job satisfaction.


mcclelland's theory of needs (has research support across cultures)

a theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation


need for achievement (nAch)

drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed


need for power (nPow)

the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise


need for affiliation (nAff)

the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships


does personality moderate the effect of mclelland's needs have on motivation?

yes, factors like neuroticism can prevent one from fulfilling the nAff, whereas agreeableness supports fulfillment of this need


self-determination theory

a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation


cognitive evaluation theory

a version of the SDT in which allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling


what does the SDT suggest about providing rewards?

suggests some caution in the use of extrinsic rewards to motivate is wise and that pursuing goals from intrinsic motives is more sustaining to human motivation than are extrinsic rewards. providing extrinsic incentives can undermine intrinsic motivation



the degree to which people's reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values


goal-setting theory

a theory stating that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance


what does evidence suggest about setting goals?

specific goals increase performance; that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easier goals, and that feedback leads to higher performance than does non-feedback


goal commitment

most likely to occur when employees expect that their efforts will pay off in goal attainment, when the accomplishing of the goal is attractive to them, and when they actively participate in goal setting


task characteristics

goals themselves seem to affect performance more strongly when tasks are simple rather than complex, and when the tasks are independent rather than interdependent


national culture

specific goals may have differing effects in different cultures, largely based on whether that culture is individualistic or collectivist


promotion focus

a self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals through advancement and accomplishment


prevention focus

a self-regulation strategy that involves striving for goals by fulfilling duties and obligations


management by objectives

(MBO) a program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress


self-efficacy theory

an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. you can boost self efficacy through enactive mastery, vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion, and arousal


reinforcement theory

a theory of suggesting that behavior is a function of its consequences



a theory stating that behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner


social learning theory

the view that we can learn though both observation and direct experience


expectancy theory

a theory stating that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual


equity theory

a theory stating that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities


organizational injustice

an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, composed of distributive, procedural, information, and interpersonal justice


distributive justice

perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals


procedural justice

the perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards