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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (95)
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1

tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

- its in memory but its due to having trouble with retrieval
- temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that its just out of reach

2

encoding

- forming a memory code
- usually requires attention

3

storage

- maintaining encoded information in memory over time
- not enough that you are guaranteed to remember something

4

retrieval

- recovering information from memory stores
- some retrial strategies are more effective than others

5

attention

- focusing awareness on a narrowed set of stimuli
- key part of memory

6

selective attention

- selection of input
- critical to everyday functioning

7

next in line effect

- trying to figure out what you're going to say so you don't encode what the person before you said

8

early selective attention

- ignore surrounding conversations
- no access to their meaning
- elect some info for further processing
- filter out everything and focus on one stream of information

9

late selective attention

- cocktail party phenomenon
- hear your name despite ignoring surrounding conversations
- focus on all information and recognize meaning

10

cocktail party phenomenon

you expect no to be processing info outside of the conversation you are having but you actually are
- hearing your name in another conversation even when you are focused on your own

11

deep processing

- semantic encoding
- emphasizes the meaning of verbal input
- how the word would fit into a sentence
- longer lasting memory codes

12

intermediate processing

- phonemic encoding
- emphasizes that a word sounds like
- what does the word rhyme with

13

shallow processing

- structural encoding
- emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus
- is the word written in capital letters

14

elaboration

- linking stimulus to other information at encoding (more likely to remember)
- also helpful when given multiple examples

15

self-referent encoding

- make it personally meaningful
- we remember things that are related to ourselves

16

visual imagery

- creation of visual images to represent words to be remembered
- patient was given 7 minutes to remember complex math formula and he made it into a story

17

photographic memory

eidetic memory

18

paivio and colleagues

- high imagery vs low imagery
- gave people lists of words in pairs (high/high, low/low, high/low)
- more people remembered high/high imagery

19

dual-coding theory

- paivio and colleagues
- we use 2 codes if you can create mental image that mental image will help us remember

20

high imagery

- concrete
- can come up with a solid picture of it
- dress

21

low imagery

- abstract
- hard to come up with a picture
- duty

22

analogies

- information storage in wax or computers
- old philosophers thought memory like a block of wax, better memory=bigger block

23

information processing theories

- subdivided memory into 3 separate memory stores
1) sensory
2) short-term
3) long-term

24

sensory memory

brief preservation of information in original sensory form

25

iconic sensory memory

sensory info for visual representation

26

echoic sensory memory

auditory memory lasts ~4-5 seconds then its gone unless we focus on it

27

sperlings classic experiment on visual sensory store

- people could remember letter better if the tone played right after vs the tone playing a second later
- proves that there is a brief preservation of stimulus is sensory memory

28

short term memory

- limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to 20 seconds

29

rehearsal

process of repetitively verbalizing/thinking about information

30

Peterson & Peterson

- testing to see how long people could remember 3 letters if not allowed to rehears
- to prevent rehearsal they had the students count backwards by 3s from the time they heard the words until a light flashed
- memory decayed quickly