Chapter 7 & 8: Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 & 8: Homeostasis Deck (86)
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1

Ureters

Tubes that conduct urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

2

Urethra

Tube that carries urine from the bladder to the exterior of the body.

3

Cortex

The outer layer of the kidney

4

Medulla

The area inside of the cortex.

5

Renal Pelvis

the area where the kidney joins the ureter.

6

Nephrons

Functional Units of the kidneys

7

Afferent Arterioles

Small branches that carry blood to the glomerulus.

8

Glomerulus

High- Pressure capillary bed that is the site of filtration.

9

Efferent Arterioles

Small branches that carry blood away from the glomerulus to a capillary net.

10

Peritubular Capillaries

A network of small blood vessels that surround the nephron.

11

Bowman's Capsule

Cuplike structure that surrounds the glomerulus.

12

Proximal Tubule

Section of the nephron joining the Bowman's capsule with the loop of Henle

13

Loop of Henle

Carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the distal tubule.

14

Distal Tubule

Conducts urine from the loop of Henle to the collecting duct.

15

Collecting Duct

Tube that carries urine from nephrons to the pelvis of a kidney.

16

Filtration

The process by which blood or body fluids pass through a selectively permeable membrane.

17

Reabsorption

Transfer of glomerular filtrate from the nephron back into the capillaries.

18

Secretion

Movements of materials, such as ammonia and some drugs, from the blood back into the distal tubule.

19

Threshold Level

The maximum amount of material that can be moved across the nephron.

20

Interstitial Fluid

The fluid that surrounds the body cells

21

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Causes the kidneys to increase water reabsorption.

22

Osmoreceptors

Specialized nerve cells in the hypothalamus that detect changes in the osmotic pressure of the blood and surrounding extracellular fluids (ECF).

23

Homeostasis

The process by which a constant internal environment is maintained despite changes in the external environment.

24

Dynamic Equilibrium

A condition that remains stable within fluctuating limits.

25

Negative Feedback

The process by which a mechanism is activated to restore conditions to their original state.

26

Positive Feedback

Process by which a small effect is amplified.

27

Thermoregulation

Maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function efficiently.

28

Hypothalamus

Region of the vertebrate's brain responsible for coordinating many nerve and hormone functions.

29

Deamination

Removal of an amino group from an organic compound.

30

Urea

Nitrogen waste formed from two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon dioxide.