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1

Atmospheric Stability

the tendency of air to ascend or descend vertically

2

Adiabatic Rate

warming or cooling rates for ascending or descending air masses.

3

Air cools at different lapse rates

(3) Environmental Lapse Rate Dry Adiabatic Rate (DAR) Moist Adiabatic Rate (MAR)

4

Environmental Lapse Rate

the actual lapse rate at a particular place and time - can vary by several degrees per thousand meters

5

Environmental Lapse Rate differs depending on what environmental factors?

(3) - location - season - atmospheric pollution

6

Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate (DALR)

the rate at which dry air (RH <100%) cools by expansion as it ascends/warms by compression as it descends - 10 C° per 1000 m

7

Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate (MALR)

the rate at which moist (saturated, RH=100%) air cools as it ascends/warms by compression as it descends - 6 C° per 1000 m

8

Lifting Condensation Level

the altitude at which the dew point temperature, saturation, and active condensation occurs

9

Clouds are fundamental indictors of ____

overall conditions including: - stability - moisture content - weather

10

how do clouds form?

Clouds form as air becomes saturated with water

11

Cloud

A cloud is an aggregation of tiny moisture droplets and ice crystals that are suspended in air and are great enough in volume and concentration to be visible

12

Three states of water

Liquid, Solid (ICE), Vapour

13

When does saturation occur?

- decrease in Air temp - addition of water vapour

14

Dew Point Temperature

Temperature at which net condensation occurs

15

Properties of Water

- Polar - Universal Solvent - Surface Tension that occurs due to hydrogen bonding - Capillarity (hydrogen molecules pulling on each other_

16

Phase change involves the absorption or release of what kind of heat?

absorption or release of latent heat

17

Sublimation

A process in which ice evaporates directly to water vapour or water vapour freezes to ice

18

Latent Heat

Energy required for a change of state.

19

Specific Humidity

mass of water vapour per mass of air at any specific temperature.

20

Relative Humidicty

Ratio of amount of water vapour actually in air to maximum amount possible at a given temperature.

21

Vapour Pressure

Portion of total air pressure that results from water vapour molecules (mb).

22

Two things necessary for raindrop/snow formation (condensation processes)

1. Collision - Coalescence process 2. Bergeron ice-crystal process

23

Fog

Is a (generally stratiform) cloud that occurs at ground level

24

Maximum Specific Humidity

the maximum mass of water a mass of air can hold at a specific temperature

25

Condensation requires..

cloud condensation nuclei, microscopic particles (dust, soot, ash, particles from burned fuel, sea salts)

26

Cloud Names

- Stratus - Cumulus - Nimbostratus - Stratocumulus - Altocumulus - Cirrus - Cumulonimbus -

27

Stratus

Stratiform (flat) cloud generally below 2000m

28

Cumulus

Bright and puffy cumuliform cloud up to 2000m in altitude

29

Nimbostratus

Rain-producing stratus clouds (gentle dizzle)

30

Strato cumulus

Lumpy, grayish, lowlevel cloud (patchy) near end of the day