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Gaspee Incident

-armed British custom ship
-ran around Providence Road Island
-the ships captain was not welcome ashore
-On June 9, local citizens boarded the Gaspee, captured and removed the crew, and burned the ship

1

Committee of Respondence

-under the guidance of Samuel Adams the committee provided information on British threats to liberty to other areas of the colonies
-in three months 8 new committees had come up in Massachusetts
-the committees provided not only information but also model of inter colonial cooperation, an important step toward a united political and military response to what British encroachments

2

The Act of 1773

-the East India company was the most profitable business enterprise in Britian, but they fell on hard times
-the company was on the verge of bankruptcy and turned to prime minister Lord North
-Lord North granted a monopoly on the shipment and the sale of English tea in America
-the tea act set tax on tea in America, and theBritish tea was still cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea

3

Tea Party

-the tea arrived in Boston Harbor on November 28, 1773.
-the patriots tried to get it returned to England
-the patriots were determined the tea would not be unloaded in Boston
-thousands gathered in the old south church
-the patriots leaders made a final attempt to contact governor Hutchinson
-150 men and boys disguised as Mohawk Indians and boarded the Dartmouth and two newly arrived ships
-342 large case of tea were dumped into the harbor
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4

Tories

-Pro British colonist
-admitted that the tea party “had been conducted as correctly as a crime could be

5

Paxton Boys

-A large group of Scot-Irish living in the back country of south central Pennsylvania
-thought Pennsylvania's government was not doing enough to protect the people of the colony
-decided to defend themselves and make a vigilant group
-they murdered six Conestogas Indians and burned the cabins where the murders happened

6

Regulators

-residents of North Carolina
-dissatisfied with the colonies wealth upperclass leaders who they considered to be cruel and corrupt
-they rebelled against the tyrants of the east and their goal was to set up an honest government and reduce taxes

7

Sons of Liberty

-secret group began in 1765 in reaction to the stamp act
-burned officials in effigy
-tarred and feathered tax collectors, dumped the tea into Boston harbor, and intimidated those who supported the crown
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8

Coercive Acts

-four acts
-intended to punish and subjugate the troublesome colonies
-the first coercive act was the Boston port act, which closed the harbor in June 1, 1774 until the value of the destroyed tea was reimbursed

9

Thomas Cage

-a general for the British Soldiers and he came to replace Thomas Hutchinson

10

Intolerable Acts

-patriots who refuses to be coerced, hardened opposition and created an unprecedented sense of solidarity against the colonies

11

The Quebec Act

-was directed at British, Canada and not the 13 colonies
-it was designed for the needs of French Canadians who loved under British occupation since Quebec became a British possession in 1763.
-set up a rigid political system and extended the boundaries of Quebec southward to the Ohio River
-encouraged many believers to join the growing chorus of dissent out of fear of centralized religious authority

12

Continental Congress

-Thomas Jefferson called a day of fasting and prayer as a show of support of Boston Patriots
-the royal governor after hearing this dissolved the House
-the legislators reconvened at a near by tavern where they adopted a resolution for the meeting of continental congress
-on September 5th representatives from all the colonies except Georgia gathered in Philadelphians carpenters hall
-inncluded: George Washington, Patric Henry, George Dickinson, John and Samuel Adams

13

Declaration of American rights

-stated that the colonies must be autonomous or self governing in nearly every respect
-maintained an alliance with the King but asserted that his actions had to be consistent with American rights
-they were given the right to raise their own militias
-the delegates agreed to reconvened the congress in May 1775

14

Militia

-citizen soldiers, part time fighters who left their farms and businesses to fight in emergencies
-they remained non-professionals serving only as long as the emergency lasted

15

Regulars

-full time soldiers who made the military their career
-the continentals were Americas regulars in war, serving as the veteran core of Washington's army

16

Minutemen

-special units of militia men
-formed a quick first line of defense in case the red coats invaded the country side

17

Patrick Henry

-rose to address his fellow legislators with powerful words that would soon be confirmed with blood

18

Paul Revere

-spread the alarm to every middle village and farm

19

Lexington and Concord

-49 Americans had been killed, and 39 wounded
-but the British regulars he been hurt badly by farmers
-not only were 73 red coats killed and 174 wounded, but patriots forces now had them bolted up in Boston

20

Patriots

-fought for the cause of independence
-more patriots than Tories

21

Loyalists

-also known as Tories
-named after the kings party in parliament
-continued to support the crown

22

Hessians

-German mercenaries
-used to fill out ranks of the British forces in America

23

2nd continental congress

-formed when the delegates gathered in Philadelphia in May 10, 1775

24

Fort Ticonderoga

-in New York it fell to patriot forces from Vermont known as the green mountain boys under the command of Ethan Allen

25

Ethan Allen

-leader of the green mountain boys

26

George Washington

-was asked to take charge of a continental army
-43 year old would help link the patriot cause in New England with the rest of the country
-after the French and Indian war he was looked upon as a hero
-his greatest strengths were commanding presence, coolness under fire, and keen ability to lead and inspire
-elected by Continental Congress

27

Bunker Hill

-Occurred on the Charlestown peninsula north of Boston.
-On June 16, 1775, Patriot forces hastily built fortifications on Bunker Hill
-The British had won a costly victory, suffering more than a thousand casualties among the two thousand soldiers

28

Henry Knox

-order by George Washington to go to Fort Ticonderoga and retrieve the captured British cannons.
-transported fifty-nine pieces of heavy artillery on a wintry, mountainous, three-hundred-mile trek.
-Knox’s cannons arrived in late January 1776
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29

Olive Branch Petition

-pledged loyalty to the king and requested his intervention in curbing Parliament’s abusive exercise of power.
-drawn by delegates on July 5, 1775
-George III refused to read it
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