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What is selection?

Systematic process of deciding which applicants to hire, promote, or move to other jobs


What is the typical selection process?

1. screening applicants and resumes
who meets the basic requirements of the job?

2. testing and reviewing work samples
rating candidate abilities

3. interviewing candidates
interview candidates with the best abilities
supervisors and team members are often involved
one or more interviews

4. checking references and background
for the top few candidates
verifying the candidates’ contributed information is correct

5.making a selection
supervisors, teams, and decision makers select candidate and send an offer


What is an application blank?

Application blank is most commonly used to collect information from the applicants.


What should an Application blank include?

1. applicant information (contact info, work experience, educational background, etc)

2.applicant signature certifying validity of info
statement of employment at will, if permitted

3.permission from the applicant for a reference check


What should an Application blank not include?

Discriminatory information.
Citizenship and Social Security data.
Information on past use of FMLA, ADA or Workers’ Compensation.
Disability information.
Past salary levels.
Birth date or education dates.
Driver’s license information, unless driving is a job requirement


How do we determine selection tests’ effectiveness?

Reliability and Validity



Reliability (Consistency)
how well a selection test yield consistent results over time and across raters

How free the measurement is from random error. involves correlation coefficients

ex. unreliable scale for weight: bad test
SAT Scores: Consistent over time



Validity (Accuracy)

extent to which a selection test measure what it is suppose to measure (job relatedness of the measure)
accuracy of given data

ex. how a test score is related to job performance
2 types: criterion and content


What are the two types of validity measurement methods?

Criterion and Content


Criterion related Validity

Criterion-Related Validity
does a selection test predict some form of work performance

correlates scores on a selection test to some aspect of job performance - shows the test is job-related

Two types of research:
Predictive Validation
give current applicants a test, hired them, wait a time period (6 months-1 year), measure their job performance,

correlated the data
more time consuming and difficult, but best measure of validity.

Concurrent Validation
give current employees test and use precious job-ratings from performance reviews to correlate data.

applicants vs. current employees

wait to find results vs. no time lapse


Content Validity

used when we already know there is job-relatedness

no empirical data -- determined correlation from job experts (SMEs)

take subjective judgements to decide how related the test is

based on job analysis

degree of representativeness of these to job

ex. work same
take job task, have applicant do job task, assess them on their completion and speed of the task
ex bartender

Used when:
there are too few people to form a sample for criterion-related validation
criterion measures are not available


what is the strategic approach to selection?

create a selection process that supports its job descriptions
process set up in a way that it helps the organization identify applicants with the necessary KASOs
ways to measure effectiveness of selection tools


What are two basic types employment tests?

aptitude tests
assess how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilities
ex. SAT/ACT, cognitive ability test, problem-solving test

achievement tests
measure a person’s existing knowledge and skills


Work-Sample Test

Perform set of tasks representative of job
Job related
Produces highly validity
Low adverse impact
More acceptable to applicants
Achievement test


Cognitive Ability Tests

Measures abilities involved in thinking (e.g., reasoning, perception, memory, verbal and math ability, & problem solving)
Form of IQ test
High validity
High adverse impact
Aptitude test


Job-Knowledge Tests

Measures applicant's mastery of subject matter to do the job
High validity
Lower adverse impact than cog ability testing
Low generalizability
Achievement test


Assessment Centers

Require candidates to perform multiple individual and group assessments
Groups of approx. 12 applications

In-basket exercises
measures the ability to juggle a variety demands, as in a manager's’ job
simulated memos & phone messages describing kinds of problems that confront a person on the job
candidate decides how to respond to the messages and in what order
ex. graphic designers, writers

Leaderless group discussions
teamer of 5 to 7 employees assigned a problem and must work together to solve in within a given time period
probably involving: buying/selling supplies, nominating a subordinate for an award, or assembling a product.


Personality Tests

Controversial due to privacy reasons (can be invasive)
Most common traits measured are: dominance, tolerance, extroversion, aggression, self-esteem, authoritarianism, neuroticism, and independence

Predictive validity is generally low unless the trait being measured is very clearly linked to the job
Make sure characteristic is required for the position
May be protected by ADA if not job-related


How do we make the final job offer?

phone, letter, or in-person
make arrangements for further conditions (drug screening, physical exam)
discuss salary and benefits
avoiding quoting an annual salary
realistic job preview
verify employment eligibility
I-9 form


Types of interviews and interview questions

1. structured
pre-set questions asked of all candidates
valid and reliable
more predictive, shows KSAOs, and scored based on set scoring guide

2. Non Structured
not very reliable
minimum of questions -- not planned in advance
open-ended questions; interviewer follow the candidate’s lead
strengths, weaknesses, career goals, and work experiences

1. situational and problem-solving interview
candidate describes how he or she would solve a problem
hypothetical situation and how you would respond

2. behavioral interview (BDI)
candidate describes how he/she responded to a specific situation
**highest validity
post behavior is very predictive of future behavior


Interviewer Bias

1. stereotyping
assumes applicant has certain traits because they are a member of a certain class

2.halo error
generalizes one positive impression feature of the candidate to his/her other attributes

3. horn error
generalizes one negative impression feature of the candidate to his/her other attributes

4. contrast
ex. interviewer meets with several poorly-qualified applicants and then confronts a mediocre candidate

5. premature judgement
makes judgment about candidate in first few minutes


background verification and reference checks because

lie about work histories and educational backgrounds
falsify credentials and licenses
make misrepresentations on resumes
also, criminal record and credit checks

40 % of applicants lie about work histories and educational backgrounds.
20 % of applicants falsify credentials and licenses.
30 % of applicants make misrepresentations on their resumes


Describe the decision making process. What are the major approaches?

1. multiple-hurdle model
eliminating candidates at each stage of the selection process
requiring applicants to meet basic requirement at each stage of the process
total cost is cheaper
use for: surgeon, police officer

2. compensatory model
a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another
based on all scores acquired during testing
all applicants take all tests
sometimes you cannot measure a person based on a single test
ex. grad schools
total cost is higher


Legal Standards for selection

Legal Standards for selection

civil rights act of 1991 and the age discrimination act
requirements on: choice of selection
does not include ‘customer preferences’ or ‘brand image’

civil rights act of 1991
protects preferential treatment in favor of minorities
equal employment opportunity laws
affects kind of info an org may gather
no info about person’s protected status

americans with disabilities act of 1991
restricts questions during selection process
may not use psychological or physical exams

Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)
Federal law requiring employers to verify and maintain records on applicant’s legal rights to work in U.S.
Applicants fill out Form I-9 and present documents showing their identity and eligibility to work.
Law prohibits employer from discriminating against the person on basis of national origin or citizenship status.
To use the system E-Verify, employers go online ( e-verify) to submit information on the applicant’s I-9.