Flashcards in Chapter 6 (Selection) Deck (24)
What is selection?
Systematic process of deciding which applicants to hire, promote, or move to other jobs
What is the typical selection process?
1. screening applicants and resumes
who meets the basic requirements of the job?
2. testing and reviewing work samples
rating candidate abilities
3. interviewing candidates
interview candidates with the best abilities
supervisors and team members are often involved
one or more interviews
4. checking references and background
for the top few candidates
verifying the candidates’ contributed information is correct
5.making a selection
supervisors, teams, and decision makers select candidate and send an offer
What is an application blank?
Application blank is most commonly used to collect information from the applicants.
What should an Application blank include?
1. applicant information (contact info, work experience, educational background, etc)
2.applicant signature certifying validity of info
statement of employment at will, if permitted
3.permission from the applicant for a reference check
What should an Application blank not include?
Citizenship and Social Security data.
Information on past use of FMLA, ADA or Workers’ Compensation.
Past salary levels.
Birth date or education dates.
Driver’s license information, unless driving is a job requirement
How do we determine selection tests’ effectiveness?
Reliability and Validity
how well a selection test yield consistent results over time and across raters
How free the measurement is from random error. involves correlation coefficients
ex. unreliable scale for weight: bad test
SAT Scores: Consistent over time
extent to which a selection test measure what it is suppose to measure (job relatedness of the measure)
accuracy of given data
ex. how a test score is related to job performance
2 types: criterion and content
What are the two types of validity measurement methods?
Criterion and Content
Criterion related Validity
does a selection test predict some form of work performance
correlates scores on a selection test to some aspect of job performance - shows the test is job-related
Two types of research:
give current applicants a test, hired them, wait a time period (6 months-1 year), measure their job performance,
correlated the data
more time consuming and difficult, but best measure of validity.
give current employees test and use precious job-ratings from performance reviews to correlate data.
applicants vs. current employees
wait to find results vs. no time lapse
used when we already know there is job-relatedness
no empirical data -- determined correlation from job experts (SMEs)
take subjective judgements to decide how related the test is
based on job analysis
degree of representativeness of these to job
ex. work same
take job task, have applicant do job task, assess them on their completion and speed of the task
there are too few people to form a sample for criterion-related validation
criterion measures are not available
what is the strategic approach to selection?
create a selection process that supports its job descriptions
process set up in a way that it helps the organization identify applicants with the necessary KASOs
ways to measure effectiveness of selection tools
What are two basic types employment tests?
assess how well a person can learn or acquire skills and abilities
ex. SAT/ACT, cognitive ability test, problem-solving test
measure a person’s existing knowledge and skills
Perform set of tasks representative of job
Produces highly validity
Low adverse impact
More acceptable to applicants
Cognitive Ability Tests
Measures abilities involved in thinking (e.g., reasoning, perception, memory, verbal and math ability, & problem solving)
Form of IQ test
High adverse impact
Measures applicant's mastery of subject matter to do the job
Lower adverse impact than cog ability testing
Require candidates to perform multiple individual and group assessments
Groups of approx. 12 applications
measures the ability to juggle a variety demands, as in a manager's’ job
simulated memos & phone messages describing kinds of problems that confront a person on the job
candidate decides how to respond to the messages and in what order
ex. graphic designers, writers
Leaderless group discussions
teamer of 5 to 7 employees assigned a problem and must work together to solve in within a given time period
probably involving: buying/selling supplies, nominating a subordinate for an award, or assembling a product.
Controversial due to privacy reasons (can be invasive)
Most common traits measured are: dominance, tolerance, extroversion, aggression, self-esteem, authoritarianism, neuroticism, and independence
Predictive validity is generally low unless the trait being measured is very clearly linked to the job
Make sure characteristic is required for the position
May be protected by ADA if not job-related
How do we make the final job offer?
phone, letter, or in-person
make arrangements for further conditions (drug screening, physical exam)
discuss salary and benefits
avoiding quoting an annual salary
realistic job preview
verify employment eligibility
Types of interviews and interview questions
pre-set questions asked of all candidates
valid and reliable
more predictive, shows KSAOs, and scored based on set scoring guide
2. Non Structured
not very reliable
minimum of questions -- not planned in advance
open-ended questions; interviewer follow the candidate’s lead
strengths, weaknesses, career goals, and work experiences
1. situational and problem-solving interview
candidate describes how he or she would solve a problem
hypothetical situation and how you would respond
2. behavioral interview (BDI)
candidate describes how he/she responded to a specific situation
post behavior is very predictive of future behavior
assumes applicant has certain traits because they are a member of a certain class
generalizes one positive impression feature of the candidate to his/her other attributes
3. horn error
generalizes one negative impression feature of the candidate to his/her other attributes
ex. interviewer meets with several poorly-qualified applicants and then confronts a mediocre candidate
5. premature judgement
makes judgment about candidate in first few minutes
background verification and reference checks because
lie about work histories and educational backgrounds
falsify credentials and licenses
make misrepresentations on resumes
also, criminal record and credit checks
40 % of applicants lie about work histories and educational backgrounds.
20 % of applicants falsify credentials and licenses.
30 % of applicants make misrepresentations on their resumes
Describe the decision making process. What are the major approaches?
1. multiple-hurdle model
eliminating candidates at each stage of the selection process
requiring applicants to meet basic requirement at each stage of the process
total cost is cheaper
use for: surgeon, police officer
2. compensatory model
a very high score on one type of assessment can make up for a low score on another
based on all scores acquired during testing
all applicants take all tests
sometimes you cannot measure a person based on a single test
ex. grad schools
total cost is higher