Chapter 6: Religions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Religions Deck (24)
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1

Syncretic

Combining several traditions

2

Solstice

special significance in some ethnic religions

3

universalizing religions

- attempt to be global by appealing to all people regardless of location or culture (58 percent of world)
- individual founder
-wide diffusion & distribution
-holidays based on events in founders life

4

fundamentalism

literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion

5

branch

large and fundamental division within a religion

6

ethnic religions

- often remain within the culture where they originated
- more clustered distributions
- unknown source
-physical geography
-holidays based on local climate/agriculture
Example: Hinduism

7

Describe the classification of world religions.

universalizing vs ethnic

8

Summarize the distribution of major religions.

Christianity: mainly Europe, Latin America, & United States
Islam: sunni in Southwest Asia & North Africa; shiite in Middle Eastern countries of Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Oman, & Bahrain
Buddhism: Asia

9

Confucianism

more of a spiritual practice than religion
Confucius (K'ung Tze) dedicated his life to education
Analects - compilation of his teachings & standards for conduct
"beautiful conduct"

10

Taoism

China
Dao (the way)
Feng shui
Yin & Yang

11

Animism

ethnic religion whose followers believe that inanimate objects or nature events have spirits/conscious life

12

Judaism

Torah

13

3 Branches of Christianity

Roman catholic, Eastern Orthodox, & Protestant

14

Five pillars of islam

1. declare faith
2. prayer
3. fasting
4. alms giving
5. pilgrimage

15

Difference between Shite and Sunni

Shite: believed successor should be related to Muhammed (Ali)
Sunni: successor should be decided by community (Abu bakr, his advisor)

16

Four noble truths

1. all living things suffer
2. suffering is caused by desire & leads to reincarnation
3. goal is to escape cycle of reincarnation & suffering
4. nirvana is reached through eightfold path (rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, & meditation)

17

three branches of buddhism

Theravad (traditional)
Mahayana (universal salvation)
Vajrayana (more efficient)

18

vedas

ancient hindu scripture

19

role of places of worship

sacred structures that physically anchor religion to landscape

20

How do climate, topography, religious doctrine and culture influence burial practices?

Cemetaries: public open space in congested urban places prior to 19th century
Cremation: wash bodies with water from Ganges River, then burn with funeral pyre

21

Significant holidays in:
1. Islam
2. Christianity
3. Buddhism
4. Judaism

1. based on lunar calendar; celebrate end of Ramadaan
2. based on seasonal changes; christmas (winter), easter (spring)
3. important dates in Buddha's life (e.g. Vesak is his bday)
4. based on dates in Hebrew bible, moon & sun; Shabbat is sundown on friday

22

Hindu Caste system

strict rules on what class a Hinu is born into
can't move out of caste system
lowest are untouchables, highest are brahmans

23

Conflict between communism and religion in former Soviet Union and China

Soviet union: Church buildings and property were nationalized
China: "protects normal religious activities" but also has only 5 sanctioned religious organizations

24

Factors that contribute to religious conflict in the Middle East

conflicts more likely to occur at boundary between 2 religions