Chapter 6: Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 6: Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Deck (41)
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1

perception

a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment

2

factors that influence perception

perceiver (sometimes we see and hear what we want, not what is true), target (the characteristics of the target, the relationship of a target to its background influences perception), context (the time at which we seen an object or vent can influence our attention, as can location, light, heat, or situational factors).

3

attribution theory

an attempt to explain the ways we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a behavior, such as determining whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally caused

4

fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behavior of others

5

self-serving bias

the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors

6

selective perception

the tendency to choose to interpret what one sees based on one's interests, background, experience, and attitudes

7

halo effect

the tendency to draw a positive general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic

8

horns effect

the tendency to draw a negative general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic

9

contrast effect

evaluations of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics

10

stereotyping

judging someone based on one's perception of the group to which that person belongs

11

self fulfilling prophecy

a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception

12

decisions

choices made from among two or more alternatives

13

problem

a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state; it requires us to consider alternative courses of action

14

rational

characterized by making consistent, value maximizing choices within specified constraints

15

rational decision making model

a decision making model that describes how individuals should behave to maximize some outcome

16

bounded rationality

a process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity

17

intuitive decision making

an unconscious process created out of distilled experience

18

overconfidence bias

we tend to be overconfident about our abilities and the abilities of others

19

anchoring bias

a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information

20

confirmation bias

the tendency to seek information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgements

21

availability bias

the tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is readily available to them

22

escalation of committment

an increased commitment to a previous decision despite negative information. this usually occurs when individuals feel responsible for the outcome. the fear of personal failures even biases the way we search for and evaluate information so that we choose only information that supports our dedication

23

randomness error

the tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events

24

risk aversion

the tendency to prefer a sure thing over a risky outcome

25

hindsight bias

the tendency to believe falsely, after the outcome in known, that we would have accurately predicted it

26

what individual factors affect decision making?

personality, gender, mental ability, cultural differences

27

organizational constraints

performance evaluation systems, reward systems, formal regulations, system imposed time constraints, and historical precendents

28

utilitarianism

an ethical perspective in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for all

29

whistle blowers

individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders

30

deonance

a perspective in which ethical decisions are made because you "ought to" in order to be consistent with moral norms, principles, standards, rules, and laws