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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (77)
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1

Learning

any relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience

2

Conditioning

learning associations between events

3

Phobias

conditioned fears, experience linked to fear, classical conditioning

4

Pavlov

classical conditioning-- interested in salivary glands in dogs, collected the drool-- each day the assistant would bring in meat powder and the dog would start salivating, what he finds overtime is that the if the dog doesnt see the meat powder, the entrance of the assistant will trigger salivation, so bell rings when food comes in, conditioned to salivate at sound of bell

5

classical conditioning

stimulus acquires capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus

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unconditioned stimulus

association that happens naturally (pavlovs dog - meat)

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unconditioned response

natural response (pavlovs dog-salivation)

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conditioned stimulus

association that does not happen naturally but develops overtime when presented with the unconditioned stimulus (pavlov dog- bell)

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conditioned response

not naturally occuring response to conditioned stimulus (pavlov dog- salivating to bell)

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Evaluative conditioning

refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that results from pairing a stimulus with positive (or negative) stimuli
(ex: attractive person paired with product)

11

classical conditioning: drug tolerance

man uses opioids for chronic pain, usually takes meds in bedroom, one day he wasnt feeling good and took it in the living room and overdosed WHY:
researchers say that because he took them in his room, his body would prepare itself for the drugs in the room but since he wasnt in the room his body didnt prepare itself

12

trial

pairing of unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus (how many trials do we need to have a relation)

13

Acquisition

learning, how long does it take to learn

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Stimulus contiguity

occurring together in time and space

15

types of classical conditioning

delayed, trace, simultaneous, backward

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delayed conditioning

present the unconditioned stimulus immediately after the conditioned stimulus ***main one we looked at

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trace conditioning

brief interval between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus

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backward conditioning

present the unconditioned stimulus before the conditioned stimulus

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Extinction

gradual weakening and disappearance of CR, overtime as the bell rings without the meat, the salivation drops

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spontaneous recovery

extinguished CR returns after no exposure to conditioned stimulus

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Renewal effect

extinguished CR returns after return to old environment

22

Stimulus Generalization

little Albert
study to classically condition fear. initially wasn't afraid.of animals but then they pair the condition stimulus (white rat) with loud banging noise that led to little alberts fear

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discrimination

in some cases CS is the only stimulus that will initiate a response (flip the generalization form)

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higher- order conditioning

building on initial stimulus, present the second conditioned response that also ilicits a conditioned response

25

conditioned tast aversion

connections between things that make us sick, rapid conditioning with things that make us feel ill (evolutionary safety)-- taste aversion (biological factors) sauce bearnaise syndrome

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preparedness

biologically prepared for dangerous food, which is why we develop rapid conditioning with foods that make us sick

27

phobias and fears

can be because of biological factors, but ex fear of spiders in australia BUT in canada it is not beneficial because there are no poisionous spiders, but its a conditioned fear

28

classical conditioning-- operant conditioning or instrumental learning

reflexive, involuntary responses, elicit

29

operant (instrumental conditioning)

consequential, voluntary responses, emit (we learn due to consequences of our behaviour, decide whether or not to emit a response)

30

Edward L. Thorndike (1913)

law of effect