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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (32)
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1

acid

A substance that increases the concentration of H+ when added to water.

2

acidic solution

One in which the activity of H+ is greater than the activity of OH-

3

amine

A compound with the general formula RNH2, R2NH, or R3N, where R is any group of atoms.

4

ammonium ion

The ammonium ion is NH4+. An ammonium ion is any ion of the type RNH3+, R2NH2+, R3NH+, or R4N+, where R is an organic substituent.

5

aprotic solvent

One that cannot donate protons (hydrogen ions) in an acid-base reaction.

6

autoprotolysis

The reaction in which two molecules of the same species transfer a proton from one to the other.

7

base

A substance that decreases the concentration of H+ when added to water.

8

basic solution

One in which the activity of OH- is greater than the activity of H+.

9

Bronsted-Lowry acid

A proton donor.

10

Bronsted-Lowry base

A proton acceptor.

11

carboxylate anion

Conjugate base (RCO2-) of a carboxylic acid.

12

common ion effect

Occurs when a salt is dissolved in a solution already containing one of the ions of the salt. The salt is less soluble than it would be in a solution without that extra ion. An application of Le Chatelier's principle.

13

complex ion

Historical name for any ion containing two or more ions or molecules that are each stable by themselves.

14

conjugate acid-base pair

An acid and a base that differ only through the gain or loss of a single proton.

15

coprecipitation

Occurs when a substance whose solubility is not exceeded precipitates along with one whose solubility is exceeded.

16

disproportionation

A reaction in which an element in one oxidation state gives products containing that element in both high and low oxidation states.

17

endothermic reaction

One for which deltaH is positive; heat must be supplied to reactants for them to react.

18

enthalpy change

The heat absorbed or released when a reaction occurs at constant pressure.

19

entropy

A measure of the disorder of a substance.

20

exothermic reaction

One for which deltaH is negative; heat is liberated when products are formed.

21

hydronium ion

H3O+; What we really mean when we write H+.

22

ion pair

A closely associated anion and cation, held together by electrostatic attraction. In solvents less polar than water, ions are usually found as ion pairs.

23

Le Chatelier's principle

If a system at equilibrium is disturbed, the direction in which it proceeds back to equilibrium is such that the disturbance is partly offset.

24

Lewis acid

One that can form a chemical bond by sharing a pair of electrons donated by another species.

25

Lewis base

One that can form a chemical bond by sharing a pair of its electrons with another species.

26

ligand

An atom or a group attached to a central atom in a molecule. The term is often used to mean any group attached to anything else of interest.

27

neutralization

Process in which a stoichiometric equivalent of acid is added to a base (or vice versa).

28

polyprotic acid or base

Compound that can donate or accept more than one proton.

29

protic solvent

One with an acidic hydrogen atom.

30

salt

An ionic solid.