Flashcards in Chapter 5 | Water and Waste Management Deck (18)
Describe the three types of water and how each is used and handled
1. Potable (treated water safe for human consumption. Municipal water, wells, water buffalo)
2. Black water (contaminated)
3. Gray water (No human waste. Flushing toilets, Fire suppression, Irrigation [with permit])
Describe the four filters
1. Sand (reduces turbidity)
2. Fine filter (removes iron and manganese)
3. Activated charcoal (removes taste and odor)
4. Reverse osmosis (removes most dissolved solids)
What is water hardness?
Dissolved minerals, primarily calcium and magnesium
What are the (5) problems associated with water hardness?
1. Formation of scale on water fixtures
2. Mineral deposits in water heaters
3. Increased detergent usage
4. Formation of soap curds
5. Yellowing of linen
How does a water softener work?
As water passes through a bed of resin, the calcium and manganese in the water trade places with the sodium on the resin. To recharge, the bed is flooded with concentrated sodium brine
Describe the (2) water distribution systems
1. Upfeed: water enters at ground level, travels up to where it is needed
2. Downfeed: water pumped to a tank at the top and pressure created by height of water in tank
What are the advantages associated with circulating pump distribution systems?
Provide instant hot water to all fixtures
Compared to large pipes: uses smaller pipes
Compared to small pipes: it provides constant pressure
What are the disadvantages associated with circulating pump distribution system?
They generally cost more to operate (maintenance/energy costs)
They have higher heat losses through the pipe walls
Describe vibration noise (cause, problem, solution)
Cause: pump makes vibrating (machine noise)
Problem: Noise transmitted to sleeping rooms
Solution: cut the pipe and add and connect it with a heavy-duty rubber sleeve
Describe water hammering (cause, problem, solution)
Cause: happens when an electric valve shuts off too quickly and a pressure wave is sent through the plumbing
Problem: can crack the water heater and joints in piping
Solution: Insert a vertical piece of capped pipe going up from the water pipe
Describe pipe expansion (pipe creak) (cause, problem, solution)
Cause: change in temperature in the pipe
Solution: Insulate the pipes to keep them at a constant temperature, absorbing some of the noise
What are the two types of sewers and what do they handle?
1. Sanitary sewer (waste water)
2. Storm sewer (rain water)
How would large amounts of rain water in a sanitary sewer impact a waste treatment plant?
Reduces amount of time water spends in the waste treatment plant so you end up flushing raw sewage
What are the two components of a septic system and their function?
1. Septic tank: allows solids to settle out and liquid to flow to the leech bed
2. Leech bed: series of perforated pipes surrounded by gravel which purifies the waste
What is the best way to reduce smell coming from a sewage lagoon?
What is the function of drain vents and traps?
Drain vents prevent the water trap from being sucked dry.
P-traps use a plug of water to prevent odors and gasses from entering the building
What is an indirect drain?
A drain that contains an air gap to prevent sewage backups and rats from getting in. Used in prep sinks