Chapter 5: Personality and Values Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Personality and Values Deck (40)
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1

personality

the sum of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. personality is influenced both by genetics and environment

2

measuring personality

people use inventories/tests, and they use self-report surveys (self-report is most common), both of which can be skewed

3

heredity

factors determined at conception; one's biological, physiological, and inherent psychological make up. personality is more flexible at a younger age and is more stable in adults

4

personality traits

enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior. the more consistent the characteristic over time and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important the trait is in describing the individual

5

myers-briggs type indicator

a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into one of 16 personality types. it measures extraverted vs introverted, sensing vs intuitive, thinking vs feeling, and judging vs perceiving

6

big five model

a personality assessment model that describes five basic dimensions of personality

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conscientiousness

a personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized

8

emotional stability

a personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self confident, and secure (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative).

9

extraversion

a personality dimension describing someone is is sociable, gregarious, and assertive

10

openness to experience

a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity

11

agreeableness

a personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting

12

conscientiousness at work

best predictor of job performance. that said, extremely conscientious people can be too deliberate and perfectionistic, resulting in diminished happiness and performance

13

emotional stability at work

most strongly related to life satisfaction, job satisfaction, and reduced burnout and intentions to quit

14

extraversion at work

perform better at jobs with significant interpersonal interaction. they are socially dominant who are generally assertive. some negatives are extraverts can appear egoistic, or too dominating and that their social behavior can be disadvantageous for jobs that do not require frequent social interaction

15

openness at work

open people tend to be the most creative and innovative compared with other traits. while openness isn't related to initial performance on the job, individuals higher in openness are less susceptible to a decline in performance over a longer period of time

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agreeableness at work

better liked than disagreeable people, they should perform well in interpersonally oriented jobs such as customer service. they experience less work-family conflict and are less to turnover

17

the dark triad

a constellation of negative personality traits consisting of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy

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machiavellianism

the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

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narcissism

the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self importance, require excessive admiration, and possess a sense of entitlement

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psychopathy

the tendency for a lack of concern for others and a lack of guilt or remorse when actions cause harm

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core self evaluation

bottom line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person

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self monitoring

a personality trait that measures and individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors

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proactive personality

people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs

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personality, job search, and unemployment (2 strongest predictors of job search behavior)

conscientiousness and extraversion were predictive of networking intensity, general job search intensity, interview callbacks, and job offers. positive affectivity is also important in getting interviews, job offers, and becoming employed

25

situation strength theory

a theory indicating that the way personality translates into behavior depends on the strength of the situation

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trait activation theory

a theory that predicts that some situations, events, or interventions "activate" a trait more than others

27

values

basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence

28

value system

a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity

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terminal values

desirable end states of existence, the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

30

instrumental values

preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values