Chapter 5 Natural Selection Of The Origin Of Species Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Natural Selection Of The Origin Of Species Deck (54)
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Microevolution

Small-scale evolution genetic changes within a population over time

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Macro evolution

Large-scale evolution the evolution of new species and higher categories

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Artificial selection

The deliberate of breeding of domesticated animals or plants

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Physical environment

The inanimate elements that surround an organism

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Biological environment

The living element surrounding the organism

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Cultural environment

The products of human endeavor including technology and social institutions around in the organism

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Microenvironment

A specific set of physical biological and cultural factors immediately surrounding an organism

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Habitat

The place in which a particular organism lives

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Microhabitat

A very specific habitats in which a population is found

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Ecological niche

The specific microhabitat in which a particular population lives and the way the population exploits that microhabitat

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Selective agent

Any factor that brings about differences in fertility and mortality

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Selective pressure

Pressure placed by a selective agent on certain individuals within the population that results in the change of allelic frequencies in the next generation

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Fitness

Measures of how well an individual or population is adapted to a specific ecological niche as seen in her reproductive rates

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Directional selection

A type of natural selection characterized by a generation after generation shift in a population in a specific direction such as towards larger body size

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Stabilizing selection

A type of natural selection characterized by generation after generation shift in a population in the direction of the average individual such as towards average body size

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Disruptive selection

A type of natural selection characterized by a generation after generation shift in the population away from the original

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Erythrocyte

Red blood cell, that lacks nucleus and contain red pigment hemoglobin.

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Hemoglobin

Protein in red blood cells that Carrie oxygen to and carbon dioxide from body tissues

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Hemoglobin A

Normal adult hemoglobin whose goblin unit consists of two alpha and two beta chains

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Hemoglobin S

An abnormal variant of hemoglobin A that differs from the latter in having a single amino acid substitution on the beta chain

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Sickle cell anemia

Disorder in individuals homozygous for hemoglobin S in which red blood cells will develop into rigid, misshapen forms that clog capillaries, resulting in anemia

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Sickle cell trait

The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin A and S, yet the individual shows no abnormal symptoms

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Sexual selection

Selection that favors characteristics that increase reproductive success, usually due to make competition or female mate choice

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Inter sexual selection

A form of sexual selection, selection for traits that make males more attractive to females

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Intrasexual selection

A form of sexual selection. Selections for characteristics that make males better able to compete with one another for sexual access to females

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Sexual dimorphism

Differences in structure between males and females of the same species

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Evolutionary psychology

The study of the role of biology and natural selection in human behavior

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Altruism

Behavior characterized by self sacrifice that being it's others

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Kin selection

A process whereby an individuals genes are selected for by virtue of that individuals increasing the chances that his/her kind genes are propagated into the next generation

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Inclusive fitness

An individual own fitness plus his or her effect on the fitness of any relative