Flashcards in Chapter 5: Languages Deck (20)
language that has evolved from a pidgin but serves as the native language (Haitian creole from french)
regionally distinctive words & pronunciations (AAE)
collection of languages related through a common ancestral language
collection of languages within a family
collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past AND display similar grammar & vocab
common language for a place to use to communication when they have many different languages (English)
system of written communication
used for official documents, on street signs, etc.
simplified form of speech that develops as a means of communication between groups that don't share a common language; no native speakers
2 largest language families
1. Indo-european (Europe, South Asia, North America, & Latin America)
2. Sino-Tibetan (China & SE Asia)
4 most widely spoken Indo-European branches
Describe how british & US dialects vary.
mostly vocabulary (e.g. hood of a car vs the bonnet of a car, vacation vs holiday)
Controversey surrounding AAE & Appalachin English
AAE (sounds like slang, associated with the hood, poverty, crime, gangs, etc)
oakland school board recognizes it as a language in 1996
often attributed to lack of education & laziness, low income
Why is it sometimes difficult to distinguish between a language and a dialect?
main difference is dialects don't have a standardized written system, so when its spoken its hard to distinguish from a language, which does have a standardized written system
women speak about people, men speak about things
women also speak more words (emotion)
Language diversity in:
1. Dutch (northern) & French (southern)
2. 4 official languages (French, Italian, German, & Romanish)
3. 500 dialects, but official language is English
4. 2 official languages (English & French - mostly in Quebec)
Policy differences regarding indigenous languages in Austrailia and New Zealand.
New Zealand: made maori their official language
Austrailia: regards english as a way to promote cultural diversity
Basque & Icelandic as isolated languages
Basque is isolated by pyranees mountains
iceland is an island
What causes a language to go extinct?
children stop speaking it or learning it
no written text