Chapter 5: Languages Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Languages Deck (20)
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1

Creole

language that has evolved from a pidgin but serves as the native language (Haitian creole from french)

2

dialect

regionally distinctive words & pronunciations (AAE)

3

language family

collection of languages related through a common ancestral language

4

language branch

collection of languages within a family

5

language group

collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past AND display similar grammar & vocab

6

Lingua Franca

common language for a place to use to communication when they have many different languages (English)

7

Literary Tradition

system of written communication

8

official language

used for official documents, on street signs, etc.

9

pidgin

simplified form of speech that develops as a means of communication between groups that don't share a common language; no native speakers

10

2 largest language families

1. Indo-european (Europe, South Asia, North America, & Latin America)
2. Sino-Tibetan (China & SE Asia)

11

4 most widely spoken Indo-European branches

1. Germanic
2. Indo-iranian
3. balto-slavic
4. romance

12

Describe how british & US dialects vary.

mostly vocabulary (e.g. hood of a car vs the bonnet of a car, vacation vs holiday)

13

Controversey surrounding AAE & Appalachin English

AAE (sounds like slang, associated with the hood, poverty, crime, gangs, etc)
oakland school board recognizes it as a language in 1996

often attributed to lack of education & laziness, low income

14

Why is it sometimes difficult to distinguish between a language and a dialect?

main difference is dialects don't have a standardized written system, so when its spoken its hard to distinguish from a language, which does have a standardized written system

15

Gender?

social dialect
women speak about people, men speak about things
women also speak more words (emotion)

16

Language diversity in:
1. Belgium
2. Switzerland
3. Nigeria
4. Canada

1. Dutch (northern) & French (southern)
2. 4 official languages (French, Italian, German, & Romanish)
3. 500 dialects, but official language is English
4. 2 official languages (English & French - mostly in Quebec)

17

Policy differences regarding indigenous languages in Austrailia and New Zealand.

New Zealand: made maori their official language
Austrailia: regards english as a way to promote cultural diversity

18

Basque & Icelandic as isolated languages

Basque is isolated by pyranees mountains
iceland is an island

19

What causes a language to go extinct?

children stop speaking it or learning it
no written text

20

How was the hebrew language revived?

response to the establishment of israel as an independent nation