Flashcards in Chapter 5-A Primer on Six Key Teaching Strategies Deck (62)
What are 3 key teaching strategies?
What are 3 other key teaching strategies?
4. Small Groups
5. Reading and Writing
What are the values of a good lecture?
1. Increase understanding
2. Instigate curiosity
What are 3 reasons for not lecturing exclusively/
1. There is less retention from lectures than discussions and more active means of learning.
2. They are inferior to reading in terms of retention.
3. They can be “deadly.” (Dull)
How long can students generally maintain focus in a lecture?
What are the conditions for effective lecturing?
1. It should be an intentionally chosen because it best achieves the learning goals.
2. it should not be chosen by default.
3. It should not repeat the readings.
If lecture is the method of choice, what are 3 advantages of learning?
1. motivation (learners inspired by engaging intructor
2.relevance (provide up-to-date info)
3. Can stimulate critical thinking
If lecture is the method of choice, what are 2 other advantages of learning?
4. integration (bring together material from multiple sources)
5. Can observe models of thinking in action
If lecture is the method of choice, what are 2 final advantages of learning?
6. common frame of reference to all students
7. efficiency-content can be covered in a short period of time.
Why do lectures often fail?
They are poorly organized, indifferently delivered, and seemingly irrelevant to student interests.
What are 4 guidelines for lecture?
1. Decide on the purpose of a lecture.
2. Prepare well.
3. Keep it simple.
4. Start with a question, problem or a case.
What are 4 additional guidelines for lecture?
5. In the introduction, give an overview of the topic and the learning goals.
6. Provide a logical and hierarchical organization of concepts .
7. Connect the content to previous and subsequent topics.
8. Use examples
What are 3 additional guidelines for lecture?
9. Exhibit enthusiasm
10. Vary nonverbals (eye contacts, move around, gestures)
11. Keep an appropriate pace.
What are 3 final guidelines for lecture?
12. Vary the presentation. (Use humor. Pause at key points)
13. Use audiovisual media.
14. Combine lecture with other methods.
Discussion serves at least five purposes:
1. Building community
2. enhancing relativism
3. offering clarification
4. generating activity
5. increasing affect.
What did Belenky et al. (1986) call a discussion-oriented classroom?
A “connected classroom,” creating a community of learners
How does discussion promote relativism?
1. See Knowledge emerging from hypothesizing
2. Weigh evidence
3. considering alternate perspectives
4. reach tentative conclusions as peers puzzle a problem.
How else does discussion benefit learning?
1. allows learners to share their confusion
2. Can receive immediate feedback
3. Promotes active learning, encourages deep processing
4. Affectively engaging
What must happen before the discussion?
Instructors must prepare-formulate and plan overall questions.
What are 3 ways of initiating discussion?
1. Revealing the goals of the discussion
2. using an opening question
3. providing a common experience
What is important during a Discussion
1. Encourage student-to-student talk.
2. Instructor takes on facilitator role (does not dominate the discussion)
What are options for encouraging continued student involvement in the discussion?
1. nonverbal acknowledgment
3. asking for others’ responses
4. paraphrasing the comment
5. asking a question of the speaker
6. posing a question to other class members
How can you mitigate the effect of 80% of instructor prompts are responded to by 20% of the students?
1. norm setting
2. wait time
3. private writing time
4. circular seating
5. name cards
6. inviting all students to comment
What is the recommended minimum time for allowing students to formulate their ideas?.
What are the results of expanded wait times?
1. increased length of student responses
2. more evidence offered in student responses
3. increased participation by reportedly less “able” students
What is the typical instructor wait time and what does this do?
1. increases passivity in students
2. decreases confidence in their intellectual abilities
What is another strategy for encouraging student discussion?
Raise a question and then give students 30 seconds to write down their thoughts.
What is another activity that can engage more students in discussions?
Ask each student, in turn, to respond to a prompt on a relatively safe question.
What should the instructor do after the discussion?
1. Summarize the key issues
2. Connect points
3. make a generalization about what has been discussed