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how did the concept of race begin?

humans can be lumped into diff tax groups began in 1700s. Blumenbach based race on skin colour, skull shape and other physical traits.


what were blumenbachs 4 races?

-mongoloid, caucasoid, african, native american.


what is a cline?

gradual change in phenotype along environmental gradient


what discoveries caused clines to supplant race?

- Boas showed that skull charachteristics were highly malleable due to many different factors such as nutriton, as well as that human behavior is not entirely genetic, but cultural
- lewontin studied many "racial traits" and discovered that there was not much charachteristics determined by race, these genes occur and vary accross populations,


what are the three stages in human growth cycle? what are some milesstones?

Prenatal stage: conception to birth.
postnatal stage: neonatal, infancy, childhood,juvenile, puperty, adolescence
adult stage: reproductive period, senescence.


what are some cog and phys changes during childhood?

brain fully develops, rapid body growth levels off, learns survival, still relies on parents for food permanent teeth,


what happens during senescence?

reduction of homeostasis, decline of function of tissues and organs, reproduction is over, menopause, bone loss


why is grandmothering important?

childcare, passing on culture, provisioning food


how does body adapt to hot or cold climates?

higher temps: vasodilation, sweating, loss of body hair, taller, narrower.
cold: vasoconstriction, cultural teachings,


how is sun related to skin colour, vitamin d and folate protection

the amount fo light reflected from the skin is greatly effected by uv exposure, darker skin with more sun.
uv is abosrbed in epi and dermis and turned into previtamin d and then vitamin d. primary source of the vitamin is sun. no sun = not strong bones.
folic acid is essential to dna repair and synth, melanin is key in this. this is why dark skin in equatorial regions.


how have people in high altitudes adapted/

greater diameter of blood vessels, greater lung volume, effecient o2 use. high o2 saturation in hemoglobin


how does undernourishment effect populations?

shorter, starvation, organ failure,


how is overnutrition effecting world?

high cholesterol = coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes.sugar in blood damages tissues and organ function,


what is wolffs law?

bone is placed in direction of demand, bone develops when needed. tennis players have strong arm bones, astronauts have poop bones