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1

Civil rights

-Guarantee equal protection under law
-Rooted in the 14th Amendment

2

14th Amendment

- Those born in the US are citizens
- Right to life liberty and property

3

Civil Rights Act of 1866

Implemented the extension of citizenship to anyone born in the US and gave African-Americans full equality before the law.

4

Enforcement Act of 1870

Set out criminal penalties on those who interfered with the right to vote.

5

Civil Rights Act of 1872

-Known as the anti Klu Klux Klan Act
- Made it a crime for anyone to use law or custom to deprive an individual of rights, privileges, and immunities secured by the Constitution or by any federal law.

6

The Second Civil Rights Act (1875)

Declare that everyone is entitled to full and equal enjoyment of public accommodations and places of public amusement.

7

Plessy vs Ferguson

-African-American Homer Plessy was told to leave a train because it was only for whites.
- introduced the "separate but equal" doctrine

8

Separate but equal

Separation of races in places they could interact with each other do not imply inferiority of race.

9

Voting barriers

- grandfather clause
- poll taxes
- white primary
- literacy tests

10

Grandfather clause

Restricted voting to those who can prove that their ancestors had voted before 1867

11

White primary

Prevented African Americans from voting in the primaries.

12

Poll taxes

Required payment of a fee to vote.

13

Literacy tests

Only people who could read can vote.

14

Brown vs Board of Education

Ruled that "separate but equal" doctrine segregation is against the 14th Amendment.

15

De jure segregation

Racial segregation due to laws.

16

De facto segregation

Racial segregation because of past social and economic conditions

17

Civil disobedience

nonviolent protest to unjust laws

18

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

Banned discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender or national origin

19

The Voting Rights Act of 1865

-Passed because only 29% of African Americans of voting age were registered in the southern states.
- outlawed discriminatory voter registration tests

20

The Civil Rights Act of 1968

Banned discrimination in housing and mortgage

21

What percent of African Americans were registered to vote as a result of the voting right acts?

56% of African Americans by 1980

22

Affirmative action

A policy in educational admissions and job hiring that gives special attention or compensation to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome the effects of past discrimination

23

Reverse discrimination

The situation in which an affirmative action program discriminates against those who do not have minority status like a competent white student cannot have access to a university simply because he is not black or any other minority

24

Congressional Union

-Founded by Alice Paul in the early 1900s
-Adopted a national strategy of amending the Constitution by civil disobedience
-Led to the passing of the 19th Amendment

25

Congressional Union

-Founded by Alice Paul in the early 1900s
-Adopted a national strategy of amending the Constitution by civil disobedience
-Led to the passing of the 19th Amendment

26

19th Amendment

Women are allowed to vote too

27

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

-Prohibits gender discrimination in employment
-States that sexual harassment is part of gender discrimination

28

The Equal Pay Act

- Required employers to pay women equally as men
- Did not address that male jobs pay more money than female jobs

29

Stonewall incident

Marked the beginning of the movement for gay and lesbian rights

30

Bowers vs Hardwick

made homosexual acts illegal