Chapter 4: Variation in Social Space Flashcards Preview

🚫 ANT253H1S: Language & Society (Summer 2016) with M. Danesi > Chapter 4: Variation in Social Space > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4: Variation in Social Space Deck (30)
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1

Define:

argot

4.1.1. Slang

slang of specialized groups, especially criminal ones

2

Define:

cant

4.1.1. Slang

type of secretive slang used especially by criminal organizations

3

Define:

colloquialism

4.1. Sociolects

July 26, 2016 Lecture

word or expression that is not formal but used in ordinary conversation

  • Evolves from general slang.
  • It involves mutual intelligibility on a social level.

4

Define:

community of practice

4.4.1. Class

August 2, 2016 Lecture

extends the notion of a speech community; by applying a certain type of speech you become a part of that community

  • People in cliques tend to take language from the highest prestige class. You only use certain terms based on what the high prestige class decides.

5

Define:

elaborated code

4.4.1. Class

notion that formal language is an elaborated social code

  • Involves more complex lexicon and grammar.
  • For outsider use, where no prior knowledge is shared and more explanation is needed.

6

Define:

filler

4.1.1. Slang

July 26, 2016 Lecture

linguistic unit that serves a communicative function: e.g. Uhmyou know

7

Define:

genre

4.3.2. Genre

August 2, 2016 Lecture

type of speech act (speech, lecture, and so on)

 

8

Define:

hedge

4.1.1. Slang

July 26, 2016 Lecture

a type of speech strategy that has various communicative forms (like, uhm, er)

 

9

Define:

honorific

4.2.3. Honorifics

July 28, 2016 Lecture

a word or expression indicating respect or class status (such as a title)

10

Define:

indexicality

4.4.1. Class

when language creates a sense of belonging and inclusion

11

Define:

jargon

4.1.2. Jargon

language of specialized groups (lawyers, doctors, etc.)

  • Are usually highly denotative and strip away cultural connotations in order to have specificity and consistency.

12

Define:

linguistic profiling

4.4.2. Race and Ethnicity

August 2, 2016 Lecture

use of linguistic features to identify the racial, ethnic, or other characteristics of speakers

 

13

Define:

quotative

4.1.1. Slang

a word or expression that introduces a quotation: e.g. He's like: "I didn't say that."

14

Define:

register

4.2. Register

July 28, 2016 Lecture

style of language used in social situations

15

Define:

restricted code

4.4.1. Class

code (usually dialectal) restricted to in-group use

  • Is more economical and to the point.
  • Involves implicit gestures that point to social nuances, background knowledge, and shared beliefs.

16

Define:

slang

4.1.1. Slang

July 26, 2016 Lecture

socially-based variant of a language used by specific groups

17

Define:

social alignment

4.1. Variation in Social Space

July 26, 2016 Lecture

associating with people you feel comfortable speaking with, even if you do not speak the same way

18

Define:

sociolect

4.1. Sociolects

July 26, 2016 Lecture

a social dialect

19

Define:

speech community

4.1. Sociolects

a group of people sharing a common language or dialect

20

Define:

style

4.3. Style

distinctive form of language connected to some social or individual usage

21

Define:

tag or tag question

4.1.1. Slang

July 26, 2016 Lecture

word or phrase added to the end of a sentence to secure consent or something similar: e.g. You agree, don't you?

22

Who is:

Susan Sontag (1978)

4.1.2. Jargon

July 28, 2016 Lecture

Sontag wrote a book in 1978 called llness As Metaphor, which argued that it's society that predisposes people to think of specific illnesses (e.g. cancer or HIV) in certain ways, rather than medical practitioners would.

 

23

Who is:

Martin Joos (1967)

4.2.1. Features

July 28, 2016 Lecture

In 1967, Joos wrote a book called The Five Clocks of English. Essentially, it points to the fact that we speak very differently throughout the day when we're communicating with our coworkers in the morning, our superiors in meetings, our friends after hours, and our family when we come home. 

Refer to: What are the five styles in English?

24

Who is:

Basil Berstein (1971)

4.4.1. Class

August 2, 2016 Lecture

Berstein conducted a study on the relationship between social class and language. He found that working-class students did poorly in language-based subjects because the restricted code excluded the students from the learning process.

25

What are the effects of language on both social alignment and exclusion?

4.1. Variation in Social Space

July 26, 2016 Lecture

  • Dialect speakers, or speakers of some non-dominant variety, are more likely to be less educated and thus work in less skilled jobs.
  • They are more likely to be under-represented in the mainstream media and in politics; but tend to be over-represented in negative ways.
  • Speakers of the standard variety are more likely to be educated and possess higher job skills.
  • They are more likely to be represented in the mainstream media and in politics.

26

What are the two types of slang?

4.1.1. Slang

July 26, 2016 Lecture

  • general slang: features of this type of slang usually emerge in special situations and then spread to society at large through expressive activities, becoming colloquialized, e.g. jazz, cool, dude
  • group-based slang: restricted language, meaning it does not become colloquial and eventually fades out, that is used to show allegiance to a group, e.g. cant, adolescent slang

27

What are four examples of some terms that were born as slang but are now colloquialisms?

4.1.1. Slang

July 26, 2016 Lecture

  • Geek: used to mean "a greasy guy who studies chemistry all night," and in Victorian times meant a fool or dupe. They are now gamers, tekkies, and neo-pagans, and have their own communities.
  • Gross: meaning large or combined, was associated with dislike in Valley Girl talk. In 15th century English, it was used to mean people who were large and stand out, and are therefore disgusting.
  • Icon: as in pop icon. In a religious sense, it is someone who deserves to be portrayed. Madonna, in Italian, means the Virgin Mary. When the pop star Madonna came out, Italians began referring to her as a star, an icon. We now use it in every field.
  • Nerd: can be traced all the way back to the 1950s from Dr. Seuss. 

28

What are the features of register?

4.2.1. Features

July 28, 2016 Lecture

We instantly recognize a register as formal or informal through the specific linguistic forms used.

Formal versus informal register maintained lexically:

  • abode vs. house/place
  • alcoholic beverage vs. drink/booze
  • offspring vs. children/kids
  • dollars vs. bucks

 

29

What role does subjectivity and objectivity play in style?

4.3. Style

July 28, 2016 Lecture

Active sentences are used to emphasize the speaker as the actor in a direct relation with the goal, whereas passive ones are used to de-emphasize the speaker as actor and highlight the goal as the "object" of interest. Passive style, or objectivity, is normally used in science.

Consider the following two examples:

  1. The apple was eaten by Rebecca. It was not eaten by me, nor was it my intention to do so, The eating action was accomplished quickly. The apple was devoured by her.
  2. I put sodium together with chlorine. I knew I was going to get a reaction. I thought I would get salt. But it didn't work out for some reason.

​Reformulating both sentences by reversing the active/passive voices makes these sentences sound less strange.

30

What are the five styles in English (Joos, 1967)?

4.3.1. A Typology

July 28, 2016 Lecture

  • frozen or static style: formulaic and learned; includes archaisms, aphorisms, Biblical quotations, etc., e.g. "I solemnly swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, so help me God."
  • formal style: dictionary definitionally formal, e.g. "Hello, my name is Ms. Smith. Glad to make your acquiantance."
  • consultative style: two-way interaction where no background information is assumed, e.g. teacher-student interactions
  • casual style: used with friends and acquaintances; incomplete sentences, colloquialisms, slang, etc.
  • intimate style: private and involves increased intonation; most common among close friends, family, and paramours