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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Population Genetics Deck (21)
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Reproductive population

A group of organisms capable of successful reproduction.

1

Reproductive isolating mechanism

A mechanism that prevents reproduction from occurring between two populations

2

Species

The largest natural population whose members are able to reproduce successfully among themselves but not with members of other species

3

Gene pool

The sum of all alleles carried by the members of a population

4

Evolution

Change in the frequency of alleles with in a gene pool of population over time

5

Genetic equilibrium

A hypothetical state in which a population is not involving because the allele frequencies remain a constant over time

6

Hardy Wienberg equilibrium

A mathematical model of genetic equilibrium:
p^2+2pq+q^2-1

7

Genetic load

The totality of deleterious alleles in a population

8

Lethals

Alleles that bring that about premature death

9

Mutation

An alteration of the genetic material

10

Point mutation

An error at a particular point on the DNA molecule

11

Spontaneous mutation

Mutations that occur spontaneously that is in response to the usual conditions within the body or environment

12

Induced mutation

Mutations caused by human made conditions

13

Mutagens

Factors such as radioactivity chemicals and viruses that are capable of causing mutations

14

Genetic drift

The situation in a small population in which the allelic frequencies of the F1 generation will differ from those of the parental generation due to sampling error

15

Population bottlenecking

A form of sampling error in which a population is reduced in size which in turn reduces variability in the population. The population that the sons from the reduced population is therefore less variable than the original population.

16

Founder principal

Situation in which a founding population does not represent a random sample of the original population; a form of sampling error

17

Gene flow

The process in which alleles from one population are introduced into another population

18

Consanguineous mating

Mating between biological relatives

19

Assortative mating

Preference for or avoidance of certain people as mates for physical or social reasons

20

Cross cousin preferential marriage

Marriage between a person and his or her cross cousin