Chapter 4- Measuring Behavior Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4- Measuring Behavior Deck (23)
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1

Three Fundamental properties or dimensional quantities of Behavior

Repeatability aka countability
Temporal extent
Temporal locus i.e. when the behavior occurs as can be measured.
(Johnston and Pennypacker, 1993).

2

Repeatability or countability

A measurable dimension of behavior defined as instances of a response class occuring repeatedly through time, i.e. behavior that can be counted). Answers the question how often...?

3

Measures based on repeatability or countability

count, rate/frequency, celeration

4

Count

A simple tally of the number of occurences of a behavior.

5

Rate/Frequency

The number of responses per unit if time. A ratio consiting ofthe dimensional quantities of count (number of responses) and time (observation period in which the count was obtained)

6

Celeration

A measure of how rates of response change over time. Celeration incorporates three dimensional quantities: count per unit time/per unit of time; or expressed another way, rate/per unit of time. Developed by Augdon Lindsley.

7

Temporal extent

A measurable dimension of behavior defined as every instance of behavior occuring during some amount of time i.e., the duration of behavior that can be measured. Answers the questions how long...?

8

Measures based on temporal extent

Duration (total duration pers session or duration per occurence).

9

Duration

The amount of time in which behavior occurs. Two kinds of duration measures: total duration per session (or observation period) and dueation per occurrence.

10

Total Duration per Session (or observation period)

A measure of the cumulative amount of time in which a person engages in the target behavior.

11

Duration per Occurrence

A measure of the duration of time that each instance of the target behavior occurs.

12

Temporal locus

A measurable dimension of behavior defined as every intstance of behaviortgat occurs at a certian point in time with respect to other events i.e., the measure of when behavior occurs. Answers the question when...?

13

Measures based on temporal locus

Response Latency (commonly called latency), and Inter-response time (IRT).

20

Measurement

"the process of assigning numbers and units to particular features of objects or events...involves attaching a number representing the observed extent of a dimensional quantity to an appropriate unit. The number and unit together constitute the measure of the object or event. (Johnston and Pennypacker, 1993a, pp 91, 95).

21

Dimensional Quantity

The particular feature of an object or event that is measured.

22

Response Latency

(more commonly called latency) is a measure of the elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the initiation of a subsequent response.

23

Interresponse Time (IRT)

is the amount of time that elapses between two consecutive instances of a response class.

24

Derivative Measures

Percentage and trials-to-criterion are two forms of data derived from direct measures of dimensional quantities of behavior.

25

Percentage

is a ratio formed by combining that same dimensional quantities, such as count or time. It expresses the proportional quantity of some event in terms of the number of times the event occurred per 100 opportunities that the event could have occurred.

26

Trials-to-criterion

is a measure of the number of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance. What constitutes a trial depends on the nature of the target behavior and the desired performance level. It is used frequently to to compare relative efficiency of two or more treatments. Often, data is calculated and reported as an ex post facto measure of one important aspect of the "cost" of a treatment or instructional method.

27

Definitional measures

include topography and magnitude. Used to define the form and intensity of a behavior.

28

Topography

refers to the physical form or shape of a behavior. It is both a measurable and malleable dimension of behavior. It is measurable because responses of varying form can be detected from one another. It is malleable because responses of varying form are shaped and selected by their consequences. A group of responses with widely different topographies may serve the same function. It is of primary importance in performance areas where form, style, and artfulness of behavior is valued in its own right.

29

Magnitude

refers to the force of intensity with which a response i emitted. The desired outcomes of some behaviors are contingent on responding at or above (or below) a certain intensity or force.