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What was wrong with early models of police's use of force?

They were highly variable and inconsistent, as well as rigid and linear.


What is meant when it is said that the early models were linear?

They were unidirectional; they went from no force on one end of the spectrum to lethal force on the other.


What is the National Use of Force Framework (NUFF)? What does it focus on? What type of model is it based around?

A model introduced to fix the problems of the old models of police force. It focuses on the dynamic nature of policing and has a circular model.


What does the National Use of Force Framework (NUFF) require the officer to consider?

The situation, the subject's behaviour, the officer's own perceptions and tactical considerations.


What does the situation that an officer considers using the NUFF consist of?

The environment, number of subjects, perception of subject's abilities, prior knowledge of the subject, time for backup, distance to cover, potential attack signs.


What categories make up the subject's behaviour (NUFF)?

Cooperative, non-cooperative, resistant, combative, potential to cause grievous of bodily harm.


What is the definition of a cooperative subject?

Compliant and responds positively to verbal commands.


What is the definition of a non-cooperative subject?

Fails to follow directions, but shows little to no physical resistance.


What is the definition of a resistant subject?

Actively resists the officer's commands and attempts to control the subject.


What is the definition of a combative subject?

Attempts, threatens, or applies physical force with the intent to to resist or cause injury.


What is the officer's perception and tactical considerations also known as?

Force response options.


What makes up the continuum of force response options?

Officers presence -> communication -> physical control -> intermediate weapons -> lethal force.


Which force response option is used the most to deal with situations?

Communication, overwhelmingly so.


Within the physical control force response option, there are hard and soft tactics; what differentiates them?

Soft methods involve joint locks, various restraining techniques, and handcuffs.
Hard methods involve punches, kicks, and choke-holds.


About what percentage of situations require physical control?

Fewer than 1%.


What do the intermediate weapons option of the force response options involve?

TASERs, pepper spray, tear gas, batons.


What is less-lethal force?

Force that is highly unlikely to cause serious injury or death to an individual if properly applied.


What is lethal force?

Use of weapons or techniques that are intended to, or reasonably likely to, cause grievous bodily harm or death.


What is the incidence rate for situations that require lethal force?

Fewer than 10 cases per year.


What do most cases of use of lethal force involve?

Either individuals who just committed a serious crime, or suicide by cop.


What is "suicide by cop?"

Where police are provoked into killing a person by that person.


Of all the lethal force cases per year, what proportion are suicide by cop?

3-4 of the 10 cases per year.


What is critical incidence stress?

When an officer is stressed about killing someone.


What does research suggest about critical incidence stress in police officers?

It is lower than you would expect.


What reasons could account for such low critical incidence stress?

The "us vs. them mentality" that many police officers have, or they are just well prepared.