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what is a species?

organisms that reproduce sexually and produce fertile offpsirng,


What is a deme? why is it important in thw study of genetics?

a Deme is the local population that produce offspring, it is the reproductive population, it is important to study because they carry on genetic lines


what is microevolution?

small scale, such as the changing of allele frequency, for example, the red hair gene is slowly disapearing


what is macroevolution?

large scale speciation that occurs after thousands of generations


what is the hardy-weinburg law of equilibirum?

the law is a mathematical formula to show the relationship between allele frequencies.


what is a synonymous point mutation?

altered triplet of dna, but same amino acid s created


what is a nonsynonymous point mutation?

a match that brings along different amino aicd, this can have profound affects on expression


what is a frameshift mutation?

change in gene due to insertion or deletion of a nitro base, which causes other triplets to rearrange


what is a transposable element?

mobile pieces of dna that can copy themselves into new areas of chromosome


what is klinefelters syndrome?

when males receive an extra x chromosome. typically results in lower fertility


what is directional selection? provide example

favours one extreme form of a trait, for example, human brains are larger


what is stabilizing selection? provide example

stabilizing selection favours average version of trait, for example baby weight


what is disruptive selection?

people on both extreme ends produce more offspring than average.


what is genetic drift?

random change in allele frequency over time provided that there is no selective advantage to one allele, it is more likely to occur in small communities who are endogamous.


what is the founders effect?

a small group from a larger population seperate geographically- this can lead to a change in alelle frequencie due to a smaller gene pool


How does Genetic drift affect genetic diversity?

the larger the population, the more stable the allele frequency. dunkers blood type, hemophilia


what is gene flow? how does it affect genetic diversity?

movement of genes from one population to another. for example, addition and loss of genes in a population can affect diversity without favouring certain genes. additional blood types.


what causes evolution (4 things)

- mutation
-genetic drift
-gene flow
-natural selection