Flashcards in Chapter 4: Emotions and Moods Deck (44)
a broad range of feelings and emotions that people experience
intense, discrete, and short-lived feeling experiences that are often caused by a specific event
feelings that tend to be longer-lived and less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus
6 universal emotions
anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise
emotions that have moral implications because of our instant judgement of the situation that evokes them (contempt for those who behave unethically, anger about injustice done to others, guilt about our own immoral behavior)
moral disgust and anger
research indicates that our responses to moral emotions differ from our responses to other emotions. when we feel moral anger, we may be more likely to confront the situation that causes it than when we just feel angry
joy and gratitude express a favorable evaluation or feeling
anger or guilt, express an unfavorable evaluation or feeling
a mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions such as excitement, enthusiasm, and elation at the high end
a mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety on the high end
the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on)
does the degree to which people experience positive/negative emotions differ across cultures?
yes. its not because people of various cultures are inherently different; people in most cultures appear to experience certain positive and negative emotions, and people interpret them in much the same way worldwide
is an individual's experience of emotion culturally shaped?
yes. some cultures value certain emotions more than others, which leads individuals to change their perspective on experiencing these emotions (Japan and Russia embrace negative emotions, Brazil and Mexico embrace positive emotions). differences may also appear between collectivist vs. individualistic cultures
has research shown that negative affect can have benefits?
yes. for example, research in Germany suggests that valuing negative affect often allows people to accept present circumstances and cope, reducing the negative effects on physical and psychological health and decision making. negative effect may also allow managers to think more critically and fairly
do emotions make us irrational?
our emotions actually make our thinking more rational because our emotions provide important information about how we understand the world around us and they help guide our behaviors. for example, individuals in a negative mood may be better able to discern truthful from inaccurate information than are people in a happy mood
do emotions make us ethical?
numerous studies suggest that moral judgments are largely based on feelings rather than on cognition, even though we tend to see our moral boundaries as logical and reasonable, not as emotional. to some degree, our beliefs are shaped by the groups we belong to, which influence our perceptions of the ethicality of certain situations, resulting in unconscious responses and shared moral emotions
personality as an influence on mood
moods and emotions have a personality trait component, meaning that some people have built in tendencies to experience certain moods and emotions more frequently than others
individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions
time of day as an influence on mood
time of day effects mood. research shows that the positive affect peak is in the late morning (10 AM to noon) and then remain at that level until early evening (7 PM)
day of the week as an influence on mood
most people are in their best moods on the weekends (lowest on Monday's in the US). this is true in several cultures
weather as an influence on mood
research shows that weather has little effect on mood, at least for most people. one expert concluded, "contrary to the prevailing cultural view, these data indicate that people do not report a better mood on bright and sunny days."
the tendency for people to associate two events when in reality there is no correlation
stress as an influence on mood
stressful events negatively effect mood. mounting levels of stress can worsen our moods as we experience more negative emotions
social activities as an influence on mood
for most people, social activities increase a positive mood and have little effect on a negative mood. people in positive moods seek out social interactions and social interactions cause people to be in good moods
sleep as an influence on mood
sleep qualities affect moods and decision making, and increased fatigue puts workers at risk of disease, injury, and depression. poor or reduced sleep also makes it difficult to control emotions. increased regular sleep enhances creativity, performance, and career success
exercise as an influence on mood
research consistently shows that exercise enhances peoples' positive moods
age as an influence on mood
older adults tend to focus on more positive stimuli and less on negative stimuli than younger adults, a finding confirmed across nearly 100 countries
sex as an influence on mood
evidence confirms that women experience emotions more intensely and more frequently, tend to hold on to emotions longer than men, and display more frequent expressions of both positive and negative emotions, except anger. studies across 37 countries show that men experience anger more powerfully than women and women experience fear and sadness more powerfully than men
a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. this is a key component of job performance