Chapter 4: Building Construction Flashcards Preview

Essentials of Fire Fighting 6th Edition > Chapter 4: Building Construction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 4: Building Construction Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...

Balloon Frame Construction

A construction method using long continuous studs that run from the sill plate (located on the foundation) to the roof eave line. All intermediate floor structures are attached to the studs. Requires the use of long lumber and generally lacks any type of fire stopping within the wall cavity.



Concealed space between the top floor and the roof of a structure.


Curtain Wall

A nonload-bearing wall, often of glass and steel, fixed to the outside of a building and serving especially as cladding.


Dead Load

Weight of the structure, structural members, building components, and any other features permanently attached to the building that are constant and immobile.



The edge of a pitched roof that overhangs an outside wall. Attic vents in typical eaves provide an avenue for an exterior fire to enter the attic.


Fire Stop

Solid materials, such as wood blocks, used to prevent or limit the vertical and horizontal spread of fire and the products of combustion in hollow walls or floors, above false ceilings, in penetrations for plumbing or electrical installations, in penetrations of a fire-rated assembly, or in cocklofts and crawl spaces.


Fire Wall

Fire-rated wall with a specified degree of fire resistance, built of fire-resistive materials and usually extending from the foundation up to and through the roof of a building, that is designed to limit the spread of a fire within a structure or between adjacent structures.


Fire-Resistance Rating

Rating assigned to a material or assembly after standardized testing by an independent testing organization; identifies the amount of time a material or assembly will resist a typical fire, as measured on a standard time-temperature curve.


Green Wood

Wood with high moisture content.


Gusset Plates

Metal or wooden plates used to connect and strengthen the joints of two or more separate components (such as metal or wood truss components or roof or floor components) into a load-bearing unit.


Hybrid Construction

Type of building construction that uses renewable, environmentally friendly or recycled materials. Also known as Natural or Green Construction.



Horizontal structural members used to support a ceiling or floor. Drywall materials are nailed or screwed to the ceiling joists and the subfloor is nailed or screwed to the floor joists.


Lightweight Steel Truss

Structural support made from a long steel bar that is bent at a 90-degree angle with flat or angular pieces welded to the top and bottom.


Lightweight Wood Truss

Structural supports constructed of 2x3 in. or 2x4 in. (50mm by 75mm or 55 mm by 100mm) members that are connected by gusset plates.


Live Load

(1) Items within a building that are movable but are not included as a permanent part of the structure; merchandise, stock, furnishings, occupants, firefighters, and the water used for fire suppression are examples of live loads. (2) Force placed upon a structure by the addition of people, objects, or weather.


Load-Bearing Wall

Walls of a building that by design carry at least some part of the structural load of the building in the direction of the ground or base.



Bricks, blocks, stones, and unreinforced and reinforced concrete products.


Means of Egress

Continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel from any point in a building or structure to a public way, consisting of three separate and distinct parts: exit access, exit, and exit discharge.


Non-load-Bearing Wall

Wall, usually interior, that supports only its own weight.


Oriented Strand Board (OSB)

A wooden structural panel formed by gluing and compressing wood strands together under pressure. This material has replaced plywood and planking in the majority of construction applications. Roof, decks, walls, and subfloors are all commonly made of OSB.


Parallel Chord Truss

A truss constructed with the top and bottom chords parallel. These trusses are used as floor joists in multistory buildings and as ceiling joists in buildings with flat roofs.



Portion of the exterior walls of a building that extends above the roof. A low wall at the edge of a roof.


Partition Wall

Interior nonload-bearing wall that separates a space into rooms.


Party Wall

: A load-bearing wall shared by two adjacent structures.


Platform Frame Construction

A construction method in which a floor assembly creates an individual platform that rests on the foundation. Wall assemblies the height of one story are placed on this platform and a second platform rests on top of the wall unit. Each platform creates fire stops at each floor level restricting the spread of fire within the wall cavity.


Protected Steel

Steel structural members that are covered with either a fire resistant spray-on fire proofing (an insulating barrier) or fully encased in an Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) tested and approved system.



Horizontal member between trusses that support the roof.



Inclined beam that supports a roof, runs parallel to the slope of the roof, and to which the roof decking is attached.


Rain Roof

A second roof constructed over an existing roof.



Short for reinforcing bar. These steel bars are placed in concrete forms before the cement is poured. When the concrete sets (hardens) the rebar within it adds considerable strength.