Flashcards in Chapter 4 - Basic Cryptography Concepts Deck (28)

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1

## What is the practice and study of techniques to secure communication in the presence of third parties?

### Cryptography

2

## What is the practice and study of determining and exploiting weakness in cryptographic techniques?

### Cryptanalysis

3

## Ensuring that only authorized parties can read a message

### Confidentiality

4

## Ensuring that any changes to data in transit will be detected and rejected

### Data Integrity

5

## Ensuring that any messages received were actually sent from the perceived origin

### Origin Authentication

6

## Ensuring that the original source of a secured message cannot deny having produced the message

### Non-repudiation

7

## An algorithm for performing encryption and decryption

### Cipher

8

## A cipher that substitutes one letter for another and retains the letter frequency of the original message

### Substitution Cipher

9

## A cipher based on substitution that uses multiple substitution alphabets

### Polyalphabetic cipher

10

## A cipher that rearranges or permutates letters

### Transposition Cipher

11

## A cipher also known as a Vernam cipher that is a stream cipher that applies the XOR operation to plaintext with a key

### One-time pad

12

## A mechanism that uses one-way mathematical functions to assure data integrity

### Hashing

13

## Three most common hash functions

### MD5, SHA-1, and SHA-2

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## The process of disguising a message in such a way as to hide its original contents

### Encryption

15

## An attack where decryption is attempted using all possible keys

### Brute-force

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## The effect of changing only a few bits of plaintext causing ciphertext to change completely

### Avalanche effect

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## Encryption type that uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt data

### Symmetric encryption algorithm

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## Encryption type that uses different keys to encrypt and decrypt data

### Asymmetric encryption algorithm

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## The practice of breaking codes to obtain the meaning of encrypted data

### Cryptanalysis

20

## An attack where the attacker has only the ciphertext of messages encrypted using the same algorithm with no knowledge of the hidden plain text

### Ciphertext-only attack

21

## An attack where the attacker has access to the ciphertext of seversal messages, but also knows something about the plain text

### Known-plaintext attack

22

## An attack where the attacker chooses what data the encryption device encrypts and observes the ciphertext output

### Chosen-plaintext attack

23

## An attack where the attacker can choose different ciphertext to be decrypted and has access to the decrypted plaintext

### Chosen-ciphertext attack

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## A brute-force style attack against hash functions where random input returns one of k equally likely values then by repeating the function with different inputs

### Birthday attack

25

## An attack where the attacker knows a portion of the plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext

### Meet-in-the-middle attack

26

## Widely used symmetric encryption algorithms

### DES, 3DES, AES, RC4

27

## Common asymmetric encryption algorithms

### RSA, DSA, EIGamal, and elliptic curve algorithms

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