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1

sensation

stimulation of sense organs

2

perception

interpretation of sensory input

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psychophysics

how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience (used to measure threshold)

4

gustav fechner

discovered the concept of threshold

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absolute threshold

minimal amount of stimulus that can be detected 50% of the time

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threshold

at what point do we detect stimulus

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JND

smallest difference detectable between 2 stimuli

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Websters Law

Size of JND is proportional to size of original stimulus ex: 30-31, 60-62 etc

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signal detection theory

detection of sensory information is influenced by sensory processes and decision processes-- hit, false alarm, miss, correct rejection

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"hit"

stimulus present and subjects response is present

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miss

stimulus present but subject response is absent

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absent

stimulus is absent but subject believes it is present

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correct rejection

stimulus is absent and subject believes it is absent

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Perception without awareness

advertising** used to influence buyers without buyers noticing

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subliminal perception

stimulus presented just beyond our threshold

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sensory adaptation

stimulus is present and doesn't change but our reaction has changed-- decline in sensitivity, overtime we become less sensitive to the stimulus

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synaesthesia

condition in which perceptual/cognitive activities trigger special experiences--senses overlap (ex see colour over math)

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Graphemes

numbers and letters have colour

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light

electromagnetic radiation

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brightness of light

amplitude (height of light wave)

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colour of light

wavelength, distance from one peak to the next, long-red, short-blue

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purity

mixture of wavelength in the light

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saturation

richness of colour, amount of whiteness in a colour impact saturation

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pure vs not pure (aka saturation)

pure- one wave
not pure- a bunch of wavelength

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retina

neural tissue at the back of our eye

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cornea

where light waves begin to penetrate our eyes, transparent

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anterior chamber,

filled with a fluid called aqueous humor, flows through canals, constantly being replaced, blockage in the canal leads to build up of pressure in the eye--> glaucoma, leads to blindness

28

lens

lens refract the light waves when it enters the eye, bending the light waves causes it to be flipped and backwards
little muscles relax: lens fattens, near
little muscles flex: lens becomes thin, far

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vitreous humor

jelly like substance in the posterior chamber, developed as a fetus, leftover proteins are squiglys

30

pupil

gap, changes in size in order to control the amount of light that is let in