Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (14)

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1

## average

### The sum of several values divided by the number of values. Also called mean.

2

## blank solution

### A solution not intended to contain analyte. It could be made from all reagents - except unknown- that would be used in an analytical procedure. Analyte signal measured with a blank solution could be due to impurities in the reagents or, possibly, interference.

3

## calibration curve

### A graph showing the value of some property versus concentration of analyte. When the corresponding property of an unknown is measured, its concentration can be determined from the graph.

4

## confidence interval

### Range of values within which there is a specified probability that the true value lies.

5

## degrees of freedom

### In statistics, the number of observations minus the number of parameters estimated from the observations.

6

## dynamic range

### Range of analyte concentration over which a change in concentration gives a change in detector response.

7

## Gaussian distribution

### Theoretical bell-shaped distribution of measurements when all error is random. The center of the curve is the mean and the width is characterized by the standard deviation.

8

## Grubbs test

### Statistical test used to decide whether to discard a datum that appears discrepant.

9

## linear range

### Concentration range over which the change in detector response is proportional to the change in analyte concentration.

10

## linear response

### The case in which the analytical signal is directly proportional to the concentration of analyte.

11

## mean

### The sum of several values divided by the number of values.

12

## method of least squares

### Process of fitting a mathematical function to a set of measured points by minimizing the sum of the squares of the distances from the points to the curve.

13

## outlier

### A datum that lies far from the other data in a set of measurements.

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