Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (195)
What is the most the most common building material used in North America?
What 2 things affect how wood reacts to fire conditions?
size and moisture
What specific thing affects the rate at which wood burns?
What is green wood?
wood with high moisture content
What is oriented strand board (OSB)?
a wooden structural panel formed by gluing and compressing wood strands together under pressure. This material has been replaced by plywood and planking in the majority of construction applications. Roof decks, walls, and subfloors are all commonly made of OSB.
What is masonry?
bricks, blocks, stones, and unreinforced and reinforced concrete products
What are veneer walls?
decorative covers; walls within a surface layer of attractive material laid over a base of common material
What is spalling?
expansions of excess moisture within masonry (concrete) materials due to exposure to heat of a fire, resulting in tensile forces within the material causing it to break apart.
What happens to stones and concrete when heated?
What are the two types of iron in buildings in North America?
cast iron and wrought iron
What is the primary material used for structural support in the construction of large modern buildings?
What is steel used for?
reinforce concrete floors, roofs, and walls, as well as stairs, wall studs, windows, and door frames
What happens to steel when it is heated?
What happens when restrained steel is heated?
if retrained from movement at the ends, it buckles and fails somewhere in the middle
A 50 ft. steel beam may elongate as much as ___ inches when heated to 1000 degrees F.
What is the temperature that steel structures are anticipated to fail?
1000 degrees F
What will fail first? A lightweight steel truss or a large heavy I-beam?
a lightweight steel truss
What is a lightweight steel truss?
a structural support made from a long steel bar that is bent at a 90-degree angle with flat or angular pieces welded to the top and bottom
What happens to load-bearing walls when steel is heated?
elongated steel can push out load-bearing walls and cause collapse
What are decorative and functional uses of aluminum?
Roofing, flashing, gutters, downspouts, window and door frames, and exterior curtain wall panels
What are curtain wall panels?
a nonload-bearing wall, often of glass and steel, fixed to the outside of the building and serving especially as cladding
What has replaced wood in many commercial and residential buildings?
What is affected by heat more rapidly? Steel or aluminum?
What usually happens to metals that are exposed to excessive amounts of heat?
What is rebar?
short for reinforcing bar; a steel bar that is placed in concrete forms before the cement is poured; when the cement hardens the rebar within it adds considerable strength
What does reinforced concrete usually contain?
What two-forms of strength does reinforced concrete contain? Why?
compressive strength of the concrete and tensile strength of the steel
What is compressive strength?
the ability to withstand pressure on the surface
What is tensile strength?
the ability to withstand being pulled apart or stretched