Chapter 3: Variation in Geographical Space Flashcards Preview

🚫 ANT253H1S: Language & Society (Summer 2016) with M. Danesi > Chapter 3: Variation in Geographical Space > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 3: Variation in Geographical Space Deck (41)
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1

Define:

bilingualism

3.2.3 Bilingualism and Multilingualism

July 19, 2016 Lecture

the use of two languages by an individual, social group, or nation

2

Define:

biliteracy

3.4.3. Literacy

July 21, 2016 Lecture

the degree to which one can effectively read and write two languages

3

Define:

borrowing

3.3.1. Borrowing

July 21, 2016 Lecture

the process of adopting a word from another language, for general use: e.g. Italian has borrowed the word sport from English

4

Define:

calque

3.3.1. Borrowing

July 21, 2016 Lecture

a word-by-word translation of a foreign phrase or expression: e.g. the title The Brothers Karamazov is a calque of the corresponding Russian phrase (the world order in English should be The Karamazov Brothers)

5

Define:

code-mixing

3.2.2. Code-Switching

mixing two or more languages during conversation

6

Define:

code-switching

3.2.2. Code-Switching

July 19, 2016 Lecture

alternating between two or more languages or varieties of language in conversation (including between H and L forms)

  • intersentential: code-switching between sentences
  • intrasentential: code-switching within sentences

7

Define:

Creole

3.1.2. Pidgins and Creoles

July 19, 2016 Lecture

a language that has developed from the mixture of two or more languages, becoming the first language of a group

  • When the children of the people who made the pidgin grow up and speak it, that pidgin becomes a Creole.
  • With a Creole comes a new culture and new communities.

8

Define:

dialect

3.1. Dialects

a regional or social variant of a language

  • e.g. American English and British English are two separate languages tbecause they are in different countries, but the different versions within American English (Midwestern, Southern, etc.) are dialects.

9

Define:

dialect atlas

3.1.1. Dialect Atlases

July 19, 2016 Lecture

an atlas of maps showing language forms in specific regions

  • Some criticized that there was an implicit belief that real speakers of a dialect lived in rural areas.
  • Additionally, there was a bias that older male speakers were the bearers of the authentic language.

10

Define:

dialect continuum

3.1. Dialects

July 19, 2016 Lecture

the range of dialects spoken over a given region

11

Define:

dialectology

3. Variation in Geographical Space

the study of dialects

12

Define:

diglossia

3.2. Diglossia and Related Topics

July 19, 2016 Lecture

the study of prestige in language forms

13

Define:

e-literacy

3.5 Online Variation

online literacy, which is often in conflict with offline literacy, but also a source of influence on offline literacy

14

Define:

functional literacy

3.4.3. Literacy

​July 21, 2016 Lecture

the possession of enough knowledge and skill to function intellectually in a society

15

Define:

koiné

3.3. Languages in Contact

the term used for a mixed language

16

What is:

language contact

3.3. Languages in Contact

In bilingual communities and in situations of diglossia the languages involved are said to be in contact.

  • Contact linguistics aimed (and continues) to document the influences languages in contact have on each other and, consequently, on their speech communities.

17

Define:

language loyalty

​3.4.1. Language Loyalty

July 21, 2016 Lecture

the tendency to remain loyal to the community language

18

Defne:

language maintenance

3.4.1. Language Loyalty

July 21, 2016 Lecture

the process of preserving a language or dialect

  • For a language to be maintained and spoken, you have to have a reason. 
  • The opposite is language attrition, and in a community of immigrants, the native language usually disappears after three generations.

19

Define:

language planning

3.4.2. Language Planning

July 21, 2016 Lecture

legislation and official policies aimed at language

There are four main varieties of planning:

  1. Status planning, whereby the government takes measures (such as legislation) to guarantee that the status of a language remains stable.
  2. Corpus planning, whereby official institutions (such as academies and authoritative dictionary makers) assign social prestige to a language.
  3. Language-in-education planning, which is designed to privilege a certain language through education.
  4. Prestige planning, which involves getting all communities to accept the standard as the prestige code through the use of a language for literacy practices and for mainstream media transmissions.

20

Define:

language shift

3.4. Standard Languages

the movement away from one language to another

21

Define:

language spread

3.4. Standard Languages

July 21, 2016 Lecture

the diffusion of one particular variant of a language over regions

22

Define:

lexifer language

3.1.2. Pidgins and Creoles

the parent language of a creole

23

Define:

lingua franca

3.1.3. Lingua Francas

July 19, 2016 Lecture

a language adopted as a common language among speakers of different languages

24

Define:

linguistic imperialism

3.1.3. Lingua Francas

when people who natively speak the lingua franca automatically assume that others (mainly those who recently learned it) understand the cultural idiosyncrasies

25

Define:

literacy

3.4.3. Literacy

​July 21, 2016 Lecture

the ability to read and write a language and to use it for formal purposes

  • It is a very elitist form of language that is written, and develops it's own traditions.

26

Define:

loanword

3.3.1. Borrowing

July 21, 2016 Lecture

a word borrowed from another language: e.g. cipher was borrowed from the Arabic language

  • necessary loan: a loanword made in order to fill a conceptual gap
  • luxury loan: a loanword used for social reasons, such as the use of a foreign word in place of a native one; nativization does not happen in this case

27

Define:

multilingualism

3.2.3 Bilingualism and Multilingualism

the presence of various languages in a collectivity

28

Define:

mutual intelligibility

3.1. Dialects

July 19, 2016 Lecture

the ability of speakers to understand each other—criterion used to establish dialects

  • Theoretically, this is not always a good way to distinguish dialects, since there is mutual intelligibility among languages that are not related. But it works for practical use.

29

Define:

nativization

3.3.2. Nativization

July 21, 2016 Lecture

the process whereby a loanword is reshaped phonetically to become indistinguishable from a native word

30

Define:

pidgin

3.1.2. Pidgins and Creoles

July 19, 2016 Lecture

a simplified language made up of elements of two or more languages