Chapter 3 - The Cellular Level of Organization Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 - The Cellular Level of Organization Notes Deck (95)
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1

Cytology is

the study of the structure and function of cells

2

in human body how many classes of cells

2
somatic
sex

3

sex cells are also called

germ cells or reproductive cells

4

what are germ cells in men/women

sperm/oocytes

5

what forms the outer boundary of the cell

plasma membrane or plasmalemma

6

what is function of the plasma membrane

functions to separate the inner part from the outside environment.

to regulate the exchange or interaction with the environment

regulates the release of ions in and out of the cell

7

cell membrane contains

lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates

8

the cell membrane is _______ layer

phospholipid

9

Which head of the phospholipid layer faces the membrane surface

hydrophilic

10

the ________ tail faces the inside of the membrane

hydrophobic

11

transmembrane proteins

integral proteins are part of the membrane strucutre

12

peripheral proteins

are bound to the inner/outer surface of the membrane

13

function of membrane proteins:

anchoring
recognition
enzyme receptors
carriers
channels

14

membrane carbohydrates are made up of

proteoglycans
glycoproteins
glycolipids

15

what is glycocalyx

carbohydrate portions that extend out beyond the cell membrane form this

16

what determines what substance can leave or enter the cytoplasm of the cell

membrane permeability

17

passage of the membrane is

active or passive

18

active passage requires

energy or ATP

19

what results from random motion and collisions of ions and molecules (passive passage)

diffusion

20

what occurs when hydrostatic pressure is exerted on teh fluids and solutes, also passive

filtration

21

what involves the movement of materials within small sacs or vesicles

vesicular transport
active

22

what is the net movement of material from an area of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration

diffusion

23

what factors influence diffusion

distance
gradient size
molecule size
electrical forces

24

what is the net diffusion of water across a cell membrane

osmosis

25

osmotic pressure is

the force of water movement into a solution as a result of a concentration gradient

26

what is the total solute concentration in an aqueous solution

osmolarity

27

tonicity is the effect of various solutions on

cells

28

A _________ solution is one that does not have an osmotic flow of water in /out

isotonic

29

___________________ is the transportation of solute particles across a membrane due to hydrostatic pressure forces

filtration

30

_____________ involves the use of integral proteins and has the following characteristics:
specificity
saturation limits
regulation

carrier mediated transport