Flashcards in Chapter 3: Photosynthesis Deck (107)
The light-absorbing green-coloured pigment that begins the process of photosynthesis.
The light-absorbing portion of the chlorophyll molecule, containing a magnesium atom surrounded by a hydrocarbon ring.
The largest group of photosynthesizing prokaryotes.
The transparent colourless layer of cells below the cuticle of a leaf, stem or root.
The photosynthetic cells that form the bulk of a plant leaf.
Photosynthetic epidermal cells of a leaf or stem that form and regulate the size of an opening called a stoma.
Openings on the surface of a leaf that allow for the exchange of gases between air spaces in the leaf interior and the atmosphere.
The loss of water vapour from plant tissues, primarily through stomata.
A system of tubes and cells that transport water and minerals from the roots to the leaf cells and carry carbohydrates from the leaves to other parts of a plant, including the roots.
The protein-rich semiliquid material in the interior of a chloroplast.
A system of interconnected flattened membrane sacs forming a separate compartment within the stroma of a chloroplast.
Grana (singular: granum)
A stack of thylakoids
Lamellae (singular: lamella)
Unstacked thylakoids between grana
The photosynthetic membrane within a chloroplast that contains light- gathering pigment molecules and electron transport chains.
The fluid-filled space inside a thylakoid.
The first set of reactions of photosynthesis in which light energy excites electrons in chlorophyll molecules, powers chemiosmotic ATP synthase, and results in the reduction of NADP+ to NADPH.
The process of incorporating CO2 into carbohydrate molecules.
A cyclic set of reactions occurring in the stroma of chloroplasts that fixes the carbon of CO2 into carbohydrate molecules and recycles enzymes.
Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation
A form of energy that travels at 3 X 10^8 m/s in wave packets called photons that include visible light.
Packets of EM radiation (also known as quanta)
An instrument that separates different wavelengths into an electromagnetic spectrum.
Photons separated according to wavelength.
Clusters of photosynthetic pigments embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts that absorb light energy.
A graph illustrating the effectiveness with which different wavelengths of light promote photosynthesis.
A graph illustrating the wavelengths of light aborbed by a pigment.
A carotenoid pigment found in photosystems that also forms vitamin A in animals.
Pigments in chloroplast membranes that give rise to the yellow colour in autumn leaves.
Pigments in vacuoles that give rise to the red colour in autumn leaves.
Photosynthestically Active Radiation (PAR)
Wavelengths of light between 400 nm and 700 nm that support photosynthesis.