Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (13)
What is a prokaryote/
Single celled organism with no nuclear membrane, or organelles, dna is signle strand in cytoplasm
What is a eukaryote?
YOU! multi-celled organism with membrane bound nucleus, with genetic material and organelles.
What is the nucleus?
Houses nearly all genetic material, covered by membrane
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?`
surrounds nuclear membrane, aids in protein synthesis
what is the mitochondria?
generates mostof the energy, houses MtDNA
What is the difference between somatic cells and Gametes?
Somatic cells make up everything except sex cells, which are eggs and sperm
why is mtDNA important?
mitochondria turns oxygen into ATP, which is energy, given to us by mother
How does DNA reproduce itself?
Takes place in Nucleus, leads to production of somatic cells (mitosis) or gametes (meosis). Seperation begins between a double helix, enzymes break H bonds, and dna is unzipped, exposed, they attract free floating nucleotides, which bond. replication complete
What is the process of Mitosis?
1.DNA is replicated
2. chromosomes are duplicated
3. chromosomes line up, spindle forms
4. as cell divides, dna seperates, each new cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes
what is a phenotype?
the physical expression of a gene
what is a genotype?
the information within genes that make an expression of alleles
what is Mendels law of segregation?
two alleles for any given trait are inherited, one from each parent,