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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (25)
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1

DNA bases ?

Adenine
Guanine
Thymine
Cytosine

2

RNA bases?

Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Uracil

3

Mitochondrial DNA
mtDNA

DNA found in the mitochondria

Inherited only from the mother

4

Mitosis

somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells from one parent cell

Same exact number of chromosomes as the parent cell

5

Meiosis

Involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes

Cell division in specialized in making ONLY gametes (sex cells)

crossing over, causing a reshuffling of the
genetic material, making more genetic diversity and
different combinations of genes

6

Functions of DNA?

Stores genetic information that controls he cell’s functions

Main component of chromosomes

7

DNA replication

Produce?

Steps?

Process of DNA copying

Produces 2 sister chromatids

DNA —transcription—> RNA—translation—> protein

8

Protein synthesis

The making of proteins

Assembly of of chains of amino acids into functional proteins molecules


DNA—(transcription)—RNA—

9

Transcription

DNA unzips, creating a template for RNA

10

Translation

MRNA template attaches to ribosome

11

# of coding (protein-producing) vs non-coding DNA?

2% code for protein

98% non coding

12

Homeotic (Hox) genes

An evolutionary ancient group of regulatory genes

Directs segmentation of the body during embryonic development

13

Role of our genes?

Specify the order of amino acids in an entire proteins, a part of a protein or any functional product

14

Fitness

Pertaining to natural selection

A measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals

Can be measured by an individual’s genetic contribution to the next generation compared with that of other individuals

15

Gametes

Reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes

16

Somatic (body) cells

ALL the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction

17

Mutations

Somatic vs. gametes

A change/ error in DNA replication

Changes in DNA bases or in chromosome number and or structure

Random and can be caused by environmental factors

Somatic: don’t get passed down
Gametes: get passed down

18

Mutations

Important?

Types?

Only source of new genetic variation in a population

Point, synonymous, non-synonymous

19

Point mutation

Single nitrogen base gets replaced with another base

20

Synonymous mutation

The code is altered, but the alteration carries the original amino acid, so no change in protein comes about

21

Non synonymous mutations

Results in a matchup that brings along a different amino acid

22

Chromosomes

Made up of DNA and proteins

23

Autosomes

Carry genetic information influencing all physical characteristics except primary sex determination

24

False statement of nondisjunction?

Occurs only in mitosis

25

Zygote

Has the potential to develop into a new individual