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1

Natural Sources of Air Pollution (name 3)

Volcanoes
Wildfires
Dust storms

2

The atmosphere can be divided by...

1. Composition
2. Function
3. Temperature

3

List the categories for COMPOSITION:

Heterosphere
Homosphere

4

List the categories for FUNCTION:

Ionosphere
Ozonosphere

5

List the categories for TEMPERATURE:

- Troposphere
- Stratosphere
- Mesosphere
- Thermosphere

6

HEAT

the flow of kinetic energy between molecules from one body or substance to another resulting from a temperature difference between them

7

Types of heat Energy

(2 TYPES)

- sensible heat
- latent heat

8

Sensible heat

result of kinetic energy of molecular motion
(i.e Temperature)

9

Latent Heat

energy gained/ lost when a substance changes states

10

Name all methods of heat transfer (4)


1. Radiation
2. Conduction
3. Convection
4. Advection

11

Radiation

transfer of heat energy in electromagnetic waves

(sun to Earth, fire, stove)
- radiation from a hotter substance travels in shorter wavelengths

12

Conduction

molecule to molecule transfer of heat energy

- diffuses through a substance
- involves a certain amount of resistance, with energy lost as it travels through

13

Convection

the vertical transfer of heat energy by the mass of a substance via mixing or circulation of gases and liquids

- as molecules circulate, they transfer heat
- hot less dense matter rises, cooler denser matter sinks

14

Advection

the horizontal transfer of heat energy via mixing or circulation of gases and liquids

15

Kinetic Energy

energy of motion, produced by vibration energy of molecules.

- intensity of that movement is measured as temperature

16

Potential Energy

Stored energy (either due to composition or position)

17

Photochemical Smog

Result of the interaction of sunlight and the combustion products in automobile exhaust

18

Name 3 chemical reactions NO2 (nitrogen oxide) is involved in in our atmosphere

1. interaction w/ oxygen to form O3 (ozone)
2. Bonds w/ water vapour to form nitric acid (HNO3) (ACID RAIN)
3. Interacts w/ VOCs to produce perxyacetyl nitrates of PANs, pollutants that damage crops and forests

19

ACID RAIN

?

20

PARTICULATE MATTER

diverse mixture of fine particles, both solid and liquid, that pollute the air and affect human health.

examples: haze, smoke, dust, sulfate aerosol

21

Black carbon / Soot

an aerosol having devastation health effects in developing countries

- absorbs heat in the atmosphere and changes the reflectivity of surfaces such as snow and ice

22

Haze

concentration of microscopic particles and air pollution that diminishes clarity

23

Air

simple mixture of gases that is naturally odorless, colorless, tasteless, formless, blended so thoroughly that it behaves as if it were a single gas.

24

Exosphere

rarefied outer atmospheric halo beyond the Thermopause at an altitude of 480km - 32,000km

- consists of scarce lightweight hydrogen and helium atoms
- less dense than our atmosphere, almost a vaccuum

25

Diffuse Radiation

Insolation reaching Earth's surface after scattering

26

Global Net Radiation

Input from sun - Output by Earth = Global Net Radiation

(varies across the globe: In the Sahara desert the net radiation is negative because there are no clouds)

27

Temperature Inversion

Occurs when the normal temperature, which usually decreases with altitude (normal lapse rate), reverse trend and begins to increase at some point.

- Cold dense air has warmer less dense air overlying it
- Stops mixing and the air in the lower portion is trapped (inversion layer) and does not clear out

28

Extent of the Atmosphere

480km

29

Homosphere

Sea level - 80km

- gases are uniformly mixed
- With the exception of: ozone layers and air pollution
- composed primarily of: nitrogen and oxygen, (water vapour, co2 etc)

30

Heterosphere

80km - 480km

gases are not evenly mixed