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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (72)
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31

filtration

particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure

32

simple diffusion

the net movement of particles from area of high concentration to low concentration

33

factors affecting diffusion (5)

-temperature
-molecular weight
-steepness of concentration gradient
-membrane surface area
-membrane permeability

34

What can diffuse through lipid bilayer? (3)

-nonpolar
-hydrophobic
-lipid-soluble substances

35

What can diffuse through channel proteins? (3)

-water
-charged
-hydrophilic solutes

36

how can you increase the rate of osmosis?

aquaporins

37

osmolarity

# of osmoles (particles) of solute per liter of solution

38

tonicity; what does it depend on?

-ability of a solution to affect fluid volume & pressure in a cell
-concentration & permeability of solute

39

2 types of carrier mediated transport

-facilitated diffusion
-active transport

40

transport proteins are ___ for certain ligands

specific

41

facilitated diffusion (2)

-carrier mediated transport of solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient
-does not require ATP

42

primary active transport (2)

-carrier moves solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient
-requires ATP

43

what type of transport is Na-K pump?mechanism?

-primary active transport
-uses 1 ATP and pumps 3 Na(out) for 2 K(in)

44

carries only one solute at a time

uniport

45

carries two or more solutes (different) in the same direction

symporter (cotransport)

46

carries two or more solutes in opposite directiones

antiporter (countertransport)

47

carrier mediated transport

transport proteins in the plasma membrane that carry specific solutes from one side of the membrane to the other

48

carrier mediated transport:as the solute concentration ____, the rate of transport _____, but only to a point

rise; rise

49

purpose of Na-K pump?

to maintain negatively charged resting membrane potential

50

secondary active transport

carrier moves solute through membrane but only uses ATP indirectly

51

vesicular transport

moves large particles, liquids, or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles

52

endocytosis

bring material into the cell

53

phagocytosis

engulfing large particles

54

pinocytosis

taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful in the cell

55

exocytosis

discharging material from the cell

56

cytoskeleton

collection of filaments and cylinders that determine shape of cells and lead structural support

57

what is the cytoskeleton composed of?

microtubules
intermediate fibers
microfilaments

58

what organelle is the largest?

nucleus

59

what are the organelles in the cell? (6)

nucleus
ER
golgi complex
mitochondria
lysosomes
peroxisomes

60

rough ER (4)

-produce phospholipids & proteins of the plasma membrane
-first section continuous with nuclear membrane
-has ribosomes
-flatten cisternae