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DNA

The double stranded molecule that contains the genetic code. DNS is a main component of chromosomes.

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Alleles

Alternate forms of a gene. Occur at the same locus on paired chromosomes and this govern the same trait, but because they're different, their action may result on different expressions of that trait.

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Cells

A complex unit of protoplasm, usually with a nucleus, cytoplasm, and an enclosing membrane. Carrys out all functions

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Nucleus

A large structure found in all eukaryotic cells. Contains al the chromosomes and is enclosed by a nuclear membrane

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DNA

A large organic molecule that stores the genetic code for the synthesis of proteins. Each chromosome consist mostly of a DNA molecules. Segments of dynamic corrrespond to specific genes. Double helix shaped

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Cytoplasm

All of the material within a cell bettered the nuclear and cell membranes. Consists of semi fluid water rich viscous gel and contains numerous specialized structures or organelles involved with cell function

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X chromosome

Xx= female (sex chromosome)

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Y chromosome

Xy= male chromosomes

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Ribosomes

Small structures usually near the surface of endoplasmic reticular in the cytoplasm of cells. Sites here proteins are assembled.

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Sex chromosome

The x and u chromosomes which are responsible for determining whether an individual is a male or female

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Gametes

Sex cells involved in reproduction. Produced by meiosis. Are egg/sperm cells. Forms a zygote when combined with a sex cell

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Somatic cells

All the cells in the body except those directly involved with reproduction. Reproduce by mitosis and have a diploid number of chromosomes

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Nucleotide

The basic building block of a nucleus acid/ DNA molecule

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Meiosis

Involved in the production of sex/gametes cells. Specialized in ovaries and testes. Involved in two division and results in four daughter cells, each only containing only half the original number if chromosomes.

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Double helix

The twisted ladder shape that is characteristic of DNA molecules

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Uracil

One of the four nucleobases in the nucleus acid of RNA

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Adenine

A nucleobase which dictated cellular respiration and involved in protein synthesis

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Thymine

A nucleobase that paired with adenine in DNA sequences and is replaced by uracil in mRNA

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Guanine

One of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA

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Cytosine

A compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids. It is paired with guanine I double stranded DNA

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Transcription

The process of transcribing or making a copy of genetic info stored in a DNA strain into a complementary strand of RNA

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tRNA

A form of RNA that binds to specific amino acid molecules and transports them to the ribosomes for the assembly of proteins. Temporarily bond with corresponding messenger RNA condons at the ribosomes in the process of protein synthesis

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mRNA

A very short form of RNA that carries a copy of a specific sequence of genetic info from the DNA in the cell nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where it is translated in order to synthesize a protein. Assemble in on one strand of a DNA molecule

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Amino acids

Organic molecules that are the building Blocks of proteins. At least 20 diff kinds. Composed of different combos of amino acids assembled in chain like molecules. Composed of carbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen

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Ribosomal RNA

The RNA molecules that are located in the ribosomes

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Codon

A sequence of three nucleotide bases in DNA or RNA molecule that code for a specific type of amino acid that will be use in the synthesis of a protein

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Gene

Inheritance usually occurring at specific locations or loci on a chromosome. A sequence d DNA bases that specify the order of amino acids in a protein

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Hemoglobin

A protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen

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Genome

The full genetic complement of an individual.

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Trisomy

The prescience of an extra chromosome in cells. Can lead to Down syndrome