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Flashcards in Chapter 29 Deck (100)
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1

what does body water depend on?

age and gender

2

what amount of the total body water does the intracellular fluid make up?

2/3 of total body water

3

what makes up 1/3 of total body water?

extracellular fluid

4

what is Edema?

Accumulation of IF which leads to tissue swelling

5

what causes lymph edema?

removal or blockage of lymph vessels that disrupts drainage

6

what does electrolyte balance usually refer to?

salt balance

7

the most abundant cation in the ECF

sodium

8

what is calcitonin released in response to what?

increased calcium levels

9

what is PTH released in response to?

low calcium levels

10

total body water content of infants

75%

11

total body water content of adults

55%

12

solutes that dissociate into ions

electrolytes

13

why do electrolytes have greater osmotic power than non electrolytes?

they are much more numerous

14

the major anion of the ECF

Cl

15

what is the major cation inside cells?

potassium

16

what is the major anion inside cells?

HPO4

17

what is the bulk of nonelectrolytes made up of?

proteins
phospholipids
cholesterol
neutral fats

18

the 2 main fluid compartments

intracellular fluid
extracellular fluid

19

fluid divisions of extracellular fluid with percents

plasma (20%)
interstitial fluid (80%)

20

what is fluid movement across capillaries determined by?

hydrostatic and colloid osmotic forces

21

what is fluid movement across cell membranes determined by?

osmotic forces

22

the ability of a solution to cause water inflow into the cell or outflow of the cell

tonicity

23

the number of solutes in 1 liter of solution

osmolarity

24

the number of solutes in 1 kg of solvent

osmolality

25

increased Pco2

hypercapnia

26

decrease Pco2

hypocapnia

27

3 mechanisms that help keep the pH within normal limits

chemical buffer systems
brain stem respiratory centers
renal mechanisms

28

what are salts important for?

controlling fluid movements
excitability of muscle and nerve cells
secretory activity
membrane permeability

29

what effect do estrogens have on Na balance?

they increase Na re-absorption leading to water retention during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy

30

what effect does progesterone have on Na balance?

decreases Na reabsorption and promotes loss of Na and water