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1

gluconeogenesis

the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates

2

Basic function of the urinary system

Remove toxins, metabolic waste and excess ions from the blood

3

structures of the urinary system

Kidneys
Ureters
Bladder
Urethra

4

what is each kidney supported by

3 Layers of supportive tissue

5

how many times a day do the kidneys filter the body's entire plasma?

60 times

6

what supplies nerves to the Kidneys

sympathetic fibers from the renal plexus

7

3 layers of supportive tissues of the kidneys

Renal Fascia
Perirenal fat capsule
Fibrous Capsule

8

the structural and functional unit of the kidney

nephron

9

2 types of Nephrons

cortical - 85%
Juxtamedullary - 15%

10

Nephron Pathway

Glomerulus
Bowman Capsule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Loop Of Henle
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Collecting Ducts

11

3 capillary beds of the nephron

Glomerulus
Peritubular Capillaries
Vasa Recta

12

what forms the filtration silts that allow filtrate to pass into the capsular spaces

The podocytes

13

2 types of cells of the collecting duct

Intercalated cells
Principal cells

14

what type of tissue is the urinary bladder lined with?

transitional epithelial mucosa

15

2 sphincters of the Urethra

Involuntary Internal Sphincter
Voluntary External Urethral Sphincter

16

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Volume of filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys

17

what does renin convert angiotensinogen to?

angiotensin I

18

effect of Angiotensin II on BP

increases BP

19

function of aldosterone

reabsorb sodium

20

where does 65% of water and sodium re-absorption happen

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

21

3 steps of Urination

Glomerular filtration
Tubular reabsorption
Tubular secretion

22

urine characteristic of a UTI

Cloudy urine

23

what sits on top of the kidneys that is not part of the urinary system?

the adrenal glands

24

function of the ureters - R

to tranport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder

25

What transports urine outside of the body?

the urethra

26

characteristics of the renal fascia

the anchoring outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue

27

chacteristics of the Perirenal Fat Capsule

“fatty cushion”

28

chacteristics of the Fibrous Capsule

surrounds and protects the kidney itself

29

2 layers of the glomerular capsule:

parietal
visceral

30

layer of the glomerular capsule consists of branching epithelial podocytes that cover the capillaries

The visceral layer