Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (103)
Carbs, Lipids, and Proteins
Vitamins, Minerals and water
what happens to excess glucose?
it is converted to glycogen or fat and stored
what do soluble fibers do?
reduces blood cholesterol levels
what do insoluble fibers do ?
what are triglycerides also known as?
what are triglycerides used for?
mostly energy storage, but also form protective cushion around organs and insulating layer
Glucose is catabolized in three pathways
Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
what is Carbohydrate Metabolism ?
Breakdown of glucose
how many calories are yielded from each gram of carbs?
what is Lipolysis?
Breakdown of triglycerides
how many calories are yielded from each gram of lipids?
The hormone regulating almost all processes of the absorptive state
Major actions of Insulin
-Enhances diffusion of glucose into muscles and adipose cells
-Glycogen and triglyceride formation
-Active transport of amino acids into tissue cells
what does excess conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin levels in tissues lead to?
what does cholesterol provide a structural basis for?
why is it that cholesterol and other lipids cannot be transported in free form in blood?
because they are not water-soluable
what do high levels of HDLs do?
protect against heart attack
what do high levels of LDLs do?
increase the risk of heart attack
what are nutrients?
substances that promote normal growth, maintenance and repair
the two dietary sources of carbohydrates
-Starch (complex carbohydrates)
two types of fibers that carbohydrates form
the most important carbohydrate
why is glucose the most important carbohydrate?
to is the fuel used by cells to make ATP
what is the recommended intake of carbohydrates?
45-65% of total calorie intake
which cells rely almost entirely upon glucose?
Neurons and RBCs
in which foods can saturated fats be found?
meat, dairy foods, and tropical oils
in which foods can unsaturated fats be found?
in fats in seeds, nuts, olive oil, and most vegetable oils
the 2 essential fatty acids
linoleic and linolenic acid