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1

major nutrients

Carbs, Lipids, and Proteins

2

minor nutrients

Vitamins, Minerals and water

3

what happens to excess glucose?

it is converted to glycogen or fat and stored

4

what do soluble fibers do?

reduces blood cholesterol levels

5

what do insoluble fibers do ?

provide roughage

6

what are triglycerides also known as?

neutral fats

7

what are triglycerides used for?

mostly energy storage, but also form protective cushion around organs and insulating layer

8

Glucose is catabolized in three pathways

Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

9

what is Carbohydrate Metabolism ?

Breakdown of glucose

10

how many calories are yielded from each gram of carbs?

4

11

what is Lipolysis?

Breakdown of triglycerides

12

how many calories are yielded from each gram of lipids?

9

13

The hormone regulating almost all processes of the absorptive state

insulin

14

Major actions of Insulin

-Enhances diffusion of glucose into muscles and adipose cells
-Glucose oxidation
-Glycogen and triglyceride formation
-Active transport of amino acids into tissue cells
-Protein synthesis

15

what does excess conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin levels in tissues lead to?

jaundice

16

what does cholesterol provide a structural basis for?

bile salts
steroid hormones
vitamin D

17

why is it that cholesterol and other lipids cannot be transported in free form in blood?

because they are not water-soluable

18

what do high levels of HDLs do?

protect against heart attack

19

what do high levels of LDLs do?

increase the risk of heart attack

20

what are nutrients?

substances that promote normal growth, maintenance and repair

21

the two dietary sources of carbohydrates

-Starch (complex carbohydrates)
-Sugars

22

two types of fibers that carbohydrates form

insoluble fibers
soluble fibers

23

the most important carbohydrate

glucose

24

why is glucose the most important carbohydrate?

to is the fuel used by cells to make ATP

25

what is the recommended intake of carbohydrates?

45-65% of total calorie intake

26

which cells rely almost entirely upon glucose?

Neurons and RBCs

27

in which foods can saturated fats be found?

meat, dairy foods, and tropical oils

28

in which foods can unsaturated fats be found?

in fats in seeds, nuts, olive oil, and most vegetable oils

29

the 2 essential fatty acids

linoleic and linolenic acid

30

in which foods can cholesterol be found?

egg yolk, meats, shellfish and milk products