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1

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures - R

Total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas

2

Henry’s Law

When a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure

3

what regulates the rate of loading and unloading of O2

Po2
Temperature
Blood pH
Pco2

4

factors that influence external respiration

Partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities
Ventilation-perfusion coupling

5

what type of process is external respiration?

a passive process

6

drop in Pco2 levels

hypocapnia

7

rise in Pco2 levels

hypercapnia

8

centers that control the depth and rate of breathing

Pontine Respiratory Center
Medullary Respiratory Center

9

Apnea

a complete stop in breathing

10

3 ways that CO2 is transported in the blood

dissolved in plasma
bound to hemoglobin
as bicarbonate ions

11

the weakening of the Hb-oxygen bond caused by a decline in pH - R

Bohr effect

12

how much more soluble if CO2 in water compared to O2?

20x

13

respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments to altitude

Acclimatization

14

above what altitude does acute mountain sickness occur?

8000 feet

15

symptoms of altitude sickness

Headaches, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness

16

function of the Hering-Breuer Reflex

to prevent over inflation of the lungs

17

how does the Hering-Breuer Reflex work?

Stretch receptors in the pleurae and airways are stimulated by lung inflation
Inhibitory signals to the medullary respiratory centers end inhalation and allow expiration to occur

18

effect of a decrease in pH on ventilation

increased pulmonary ventilation

19

effect of an increase in pH on ventilation

decreased pulmonary ventilation

20

Haldane effect

The amount of CO2 transported is affected by the Po2

21

what is the direction of the diffusion of gases at capillaries in the tissues?

oxygen out of blood
CO2 into blood

22

dominant method of CO2 transport

dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions

23

Forces that maintain the negative pressure in Pip

1. elasticity of the lungs
2. surface tension in alveoli
3. chest wall pulling action

24

what level of pH will will make oxygenated hemoglobin release oxygen more readily?

decreased

25

what will holding breath for 60 sec do?

increase alveolar pCO2

26

where is partial pressure of CO2 higher than oxygen?

blood leaving right ventricle

27

chloride ions moving into or out of the red blood cell

chloride shift

28

the most important stimulus for breathing

body's need to rid itself of CO2

29

when CO2 is accumulated in the blood the pH is...?

decreased

30

how is most oxygen transported?

by iron in Hb