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Crises - they are acute and time limited. T/F?



Erich Lindemann - what did he do?

Early crisis theorist. Preventive interventions after an event could help reduce the distressed. Believed using bereavement techniques would help those after a serious event.


Gerald Caplan - what did he do/

Outlined crisis intervention strategies.


What did Donna Aguilera and Janice Mesnick do?

They provide a framework for nurses for crisis assessment and intervention.


What are the three basic types of crises?

Maturational, situation, and adventitious (disasters).


What is a maturational crisis?

This is when there's something that happens through the process of life. For example, it might be that a child is off to college or two parents just separated.


What is a situational crisis?

This is when it arises from an external rather than internal source. It is typically unanticipated. Loss of job, death, unwanted pregnancy are examples.


What is an adventitious crisis?

This is a disaster. It is not part of everyday life. It is horrible and terrible - like a tornado or terrorist attack.


What are the four distinct phases of crisis (Caplan)?

1 - Person is confronted by a conflict or problem that threatens them - anxiety is increased, to try and help them.
2 - If the usual defensive response fails, anxiety continues to rise and there is not discomfort. Trial and error happens.
3 - Panic level of anxiety happens here. Flight or flight. Compromising needs or such happen in order to help the situation.
4 - Anxiety can overwhelm the person - depression, confusion, etc.


For a patient assessment, should we worry about how they perceive the event?



What is primary care for a crisis?

This is when the nurse works with the individual to recognize problems, etc.


What is secondary care?

This is establishing care during a crisis to prevent prolonged anxiety.


What is tertiary care?

This provides support for those who have experienced a severe crisis.


What is CISD?

This is an example of tertiary - it helps people talk through things.


When is the evaluation done for a person in crisis?

Usually 4-8 weeks after the initial interview.