Chapter 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - The Chemical Level of Organization Notes Deck (108)
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1

Chemistry is

the science that looks at the structure of matter.

2

Matter is

anything that takes up space and has mass

3

Atoms:

are the smallest stable units of matter

4

What determines the structure of a given object or being

the way atoms combine and interact

5

Atoms are composed of _____ that determine the structure of an object

subatomic particles

6

proton

a unit of energy that carries a positive charge

7

neutron

are particles that have no electrical charge

8

electrons

are particles that have a negative charge

9

mass

the mass of an atom is determined by the amount of protons and neutrons that are present in the nucleus

10

atomic number

is the number of protons in an atom

11

Atoms normally contain _________ protons and electrons

equal numbers

12

Elements

name given to specific group of atoms

13

How many elements exist naturally

92

14

how many elements created in labs

25

15

Trace elements

elements found in body in very small amounts

16

isotopes

elements whose atoms nuclei contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

17

mass number

is the total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus used to designate particular isotopes

18

radioisotopes

isotopes with nuclei that spontaneously emit subatomic particles with radiation in measurable amounts.

19

Decay

the emission process from radioisotopes

20

half life

the time required for half of any radioactive isotope to decay

21

atom weight

the actual mass of an atom

22

How is atomic weight calculated

by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.

23

how is atomic weight expresed

Dalton aka atomic mass unit or amu

24

mole

the atomic weight of an element represented in the unit of grams.

one mole of any element equals the same amount

25

the number that is the constant regarding moles is

Avogardo's number

It is 6.023 x 10(23) or 600 billion trillion

26

the rings (of electrons) that are the closest to the nucleus

are weaker charged particles, as you go further out the charge becomes greater

27

the outer ring or shell gives the element its

properties

28

if the outer ring has room for more electrons it is considered

unstable and likely to interact with other elements that have available space for electrons

29

inert elements

are those that have all the outer shell full of electrons and therefore cannot interact with other elements.

30

elements with available space are

reactive