Chapter 2: How Is Personality Studied and Assessed? Flashcards Preview

🎭 PSY230H1F: Personality and Its Transformations (2016) with D. Dolderman > Chapter 2: How Is Personality Studied and Assessed? > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: How Is Personality Studied and Assessed? Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the strenghts and weaknesses of subjective assessment?

Subjective assessment relies on interpretation. The problems revolve around the fact that different observers may make different judgments, and such judgments are fallible. A group of experts can, however, often see through the complexities of a rich phenomenon and gain insights.

  • In personality assessment, we must walk the line between being so objective that our information is sterile and being so subjective that our observation is idiosyncratic and our inference is unscientific. 

2

Define:

reliability

2.1.1 Reliability

The consistency of scores that are expected to be the same. 

3

Define:

error variance

2.1.1 Reliability

Also known as errors of measurement, error variances are variations that are caused by irrelevant, chance fluctuations. 

4

Define:

internal consistency reliability

2.1.1 Reliability

Measuring the degree of consistency by seeing whether subparts or equivalent parts of a test yield the same results. 

5

Define:

test-retest reliability

2.1.1 Reliability

Measuring the degree of consistency by seeing if the test yields consistent results over time.

  • How can we have a reliable measure of personality over time if it is constantly changing?
  • First, the basic underlying patterns of personality remain relatively stable.
  • Secondly, to allow that personality may change over the long term (or after a major trauma) and to expect personality stability only over shorter periods of perhaps several years.

6

Define:

validity

2.1.2 Construct Validity
 

The degree to which something measures what it purports to measure.

7

Define:

construct validity

2.1.2 Construct Validity

The extent to which a test truly measures a theoretical construct.

8

Define:

convergent validation

2.1.2 Construct Validity

The degree to which an assessment is related to what it should theoretically be related to.

9

Define:

discriminant validation

2.1.2 Construct Validity

The degree to which an assessment is not related to what it should not be related to.

10

Define:

criterion-related validation

2.1.2 Construct Validity

Whether a measure predicts to outcome criteria. 

11

Define:

multitrait-multimethod perspective

2.1.2 Construct Validity

An approach that involves assessing various traits and utilizing multiple assessment methods.

12

Define:

content validity

2.1.2 Construct Validity

Whether a test is measuring the domain that it is supposed to be measuring.

13

Define:

ethnic bias

2.2 Bias

When tests fail to take into account the relevant culture or subculture of the person being tested; theories and measures developed in one culture are often improperly applied to another culture.

14

Define:

response sets

2.2.1 Response Sets

Biases unrelated to the personality characteristic being measured.

15

Define:

acquiescence response set

2.2.1 Response Sets

Including items that are worded in the reverse direction to combat the responses of those people who are likely to agree with anything you ask them.

16

Define:

social desirability response set

2.2.1 Response Sets

People want to present themselves in a favorable light or respond to please the experimenter or test administrator, thus skewing the responses they give.

17

What is the:

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

2.3.1 Self-Report Tests

Responding to about 500 statements, the test-taker answers either “true,” “false,” or “cannot say.” The MMPI was created using criterion-related item selection. That is, the selected items distinguished between a target group such as people with depression and a normal control group. It was thus focused on assessing psychopathology (mental illness). 

18

What is:

factor analysis

2.3.1 Self-Report Tests

Factor analysis starts with the correlations among a 
number of simple scales and then reduces this information to a few basic dimensions. Primarily descriptive, the factors must then be explained by a theory. 

19

What is the:

Personality Research Form (PRF)

2.3.1 Self-Report Tests

The PRF starts out with an attempt to measure the basic needs and motivations proposed by Henry Murray (1938). The test is thus driven by theory but was developed using correlational techniques.

20

What is a:

Q-sort

2.3.2 Q-Sort Tests

In the Q-sort, a person is given a stack of cards naming various characteristics and asked to sort them into piles on a dimension such as least characteristic to most characteristic of oneself.

21

Define:

forced normal distribution

2.3.2 Q-Sort Tests

When a researchers ensure that data collected will produce a normally curved distribution.

22

Define:

phrenology

2.3.4 Biological Measures
 

Assessing personality by feeling the position and shapes of bumps on people’s skulls.

23

What is an:

electroencephalogram (EEG)

2.3.4 Biological Measures

 EEGs measure electrical potentials at the scalp that are caused by large populations of neurons becoming active simultaneously. It is used to study neuronal activity within the neocortex (higher level functioning).

24

What is a:

positron emission tomography (PET) scan

2.3.4 Biological Measures

PET scans show brain activity by recording the brain’s use of radioactive glucose in certain tasks. We can watch brain activity while people think or cope, or compare levels of brain activity across individuals. 

25

Define:

functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

2.3.4 Biological Measures

An fMRI assesses brain activity by measuring changes in oxygenated blood flow, as blood flow will be directed to regions of the brain where activity is highest. 

26

Define:

experience sampling method of assessment

2.3.5 Behavioural Observations

A systematic way of having participants provide samples of their ongoing behavior (e.g. text messages or phone calls).

27

Define:

psychotherapeutic interview

2.3.6 Interviews

In this setting, the client (patient) talks about important or troubling parts of his or her life.

28

Define:

structured interview

2.3.6 Interviews

 

The interviewer follows a definite plan in hopes that similar types of information can be elicited from each interviewee so that the assessment can become more valid. The participant is given clear instructions about the types of events to address, such as turning points, earliest memories, positive influences, favorite books, and so on.

29

Define:

typology

2.3.6 Interviews

 A categorical scheme in which people are in either one group or another.

30

Define:

expressive style

2.3.7 Expressive Behavior

The nonverbal cues of behaviour. Expression, particularly emotional expression, seems closely tied to dynamic, motivational aspects of personality.