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What are the 4 categories of carbon compounds?

-Nucleotides and nucleic acid


What are the functional groups of carbon compounds?

Small clusters of atoms attached to carbon backbone, these determine many of the properties of organic molecules:

Hydroxyl - OH
Methyl - CH2
Carboxyl - COOH
Amino - NH3
Phosphate - H3PO4


Describe Monomers Polymers and Macro Molecules

Macromolecules - very large organic molecules (high weight, usually proteins/ DNA)

Monomers - an identical or similar subunit

Polymers - Molecules made of a repetitive series of identical or similar subunits (monomers)


What is Polymerization?

Joining monomers to form a polymer


In what ways can Polymerization occur?

Dehydration synthesis (condensation) is how living cells form polymers.

Hydrolysis - Opposite of dehydration synthesis


Explain Dehydration Synthesis

Monomers covalently bond together to form a polymer with the removal of a water molecule.

Hydroxyl -OH group is removed from one monomer, and hydrogen H+ from another, producing water as by-product)


Explain Hydrolysis

Splitting a polymer (lysis) by the addition of a water molecule (hydro). A covalent bond is broken.

All digestion reactions consists of hydrolysis reactions.


What is a Carbohydrate?*

*(important to know)

***Hydrophilic (interacts with water) organic molecule***

***(CH2O)n = number of carbon atoms for glucose, n=6 so formula is C6H12O6***

***2:1 ration of hydrogen to oxygen ***


What are Monosaccharides?

Simplest carbohydrates (simple sugars)


What are the 3 important monosaccharides?

Glucose, Galactose and Fructose - they all have the same molecular formula (C6H12O6 - they are isomers)

Produced by digestion of complex carbohydrates

Glucose is blood sugar


What are Disaccharides?

Sugar molecule composed of 2 monosaccharides.


What are the 3 important disaccharides?

Sucrose - table sugar (glucose +fructose)
Lactose - sugar in milk (glucose + galactose)
Maltose - grain products (glucose + glucose)


What are Polysaccharides?

Long chains of glucose


What are the 3 polysaccharides of interest in humans?*

Glycogen - energy storage polysaccharide in animals.

(made by liver, muscles, brain, uterus and vagina. Live produces glycogen after a meal when glucose level is high then breaks it down between meals to maintain blood glucose levels. Muscles store glycogen for own energy needs. Uterus uses glycogen to nourish embryo)

Starch - Energy Storage polysaccharide in plants (only significant digestible polysaccharide in the human diet)

Cellulose - Structural molecule of plant cell walls (fiber in our diet)


What are the Carbohydrate Functions?

To quickly mobilize our source of energy. (all digested carbohydrates are converted to glucose and are oxidized to make ATP)


What are Conjugated carbohydrates?

covalently bound to lipid or protein. They include:

Glycolipids - external surface of the cell membrane

Glycoproteins - external surface of the cell membrane, make up mucus of respiratory and digestive tracts

Proteoglycans (mucopolysaccharides) - gels that hold cells and tissues together. They form gelatinous filler in umbilical cord and eyes. They provide joint lubrication. They are tough and rubbery texture of cartilage.


What are Lipids?*

Hydrophobic organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They have a high ratio of hydrogen to oxygen.

Less oxidized than carbohydrates and thus has more calories/gram***

*remember hydrophobic - does not interact with water, does not dissolve completely, leaves films like butter in water.


What are the 5 primary types of Lipids in humans?

Fatty Acids


What are Fatty Acids?*

Chain of 4 to 24 Carbon atoms. Carboxyl (acid) group on one end and methyl group on the other and hydrogen bonded along the sides.


How are Fatty Acids Classified?

saturated - carbon atoms saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated - contains C=C bonds without hydrogen
polyunsaturated - contains many C=C bonds
essential fatty acids - obtained from diet, body cannot synthesize.


What are Triglycerides (Neutral Fats)?*

3 fatty acids covalently bonded to three carbon alcohol, glycerol molecules.
- each bond formed by dehydration synthesis. one joined to glycerol, fatty acids can no longer donate protons - neutral fats.
- broken down by hydrolysis.

Triglycerides at room temperature:
When liquid, called oils. Often polyunsaturated fats from plants. When solid, called Fat, saturated fats from animals.


What are Triglycerides primary function?

Energy Storage, insulation and shock absorption (adipose tissue)


What are Phospholipids?*

Similar to neutral fat except that one fatty acid replaced by a phosphate group.

Structural foundation of a cell membrane.

Amphiphilic - fatty acid "tails" are hydrophobic, Phosphate "head" is hydrophilic


What are Eicosanoids?*

20 carbon compounds derived from a fatty acid called Arachidonic acid.

hormone - like chemical signals between cells.

includes prostaglandins - produced in all tissues. play roles in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labour contractions, blood vessel diameter.


What is a Steroid?

A lipid with 17 of its carbon atoms in 4 rings.


What is Cholesterol?*

The "parent" steroid from which the other steroids are synthesized.

- synthesized only by animals, especially liver cells. 15% from diet, 85% internally synthesized.

-important component of cell membranes. required for proper nervous system function.


What are Proteins?

A polymer of Amino acids.


What is an Amino Acid?

central carbon with 3 attachments.

-Amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH) and radical group (R Group)

- 20 amino acids used to make the proteins are identical except for the radical (R) group. Properties of amino acid determined by R group.


What is a Peptide?

Any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds.


What is a Peptide Bond?

Joins the amino group of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of the next. Formed by dehydration synthesis.