Flashcards in Chapter 2: Diversity in the Workplace Deck (28)
surface level diversity
differences in easily perceived characteristics like gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, that do not reelect the way people think or feel but may activate certain stereotypes
deep level diversity
differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better
is to note a difference between things, which in itself is't necessarily bad. Usually when we talk about discrimination, thought, we mean allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about groups of people
judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which that person belongs. Stereotype is the fuel that powers the discrimination machine
the degree to which we agree internally with the generally negative stereotyped perceptions of our groups.
People become their own worst enemies when they feel stereotype threat. Ironically, they may unconsciously exaggerate the stereotype
What org changes can be made to reduce stereotype threat?
increasing awareness of how stereotypes may be perpetuated (especially when developing policies), reducing differential and preferential treatment through objective assessments, confronting micro-aggressions against minority groups, and adopting transparent practices that signal value of all employees
forms of discrimination
discriminatory policies or practices, sexual harassment, intimidation, mockery and insults, exclusion, and incivility
personal characteristics, such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure - that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface level diversity
often times misunderstood in the workplace, and workers over 55 tend to have lower rates of absenteeism. Part of that is due to the fact that they have become specialized in one field, so their employment opportunities become limited. People learning through experimentation reach peak creativity at 40-60 years old. Studies show that people become subjectively happier in their older age (despite the thought that youth is the best time of one's life)
is age diversity beneficial to an organization?
there is little to no difference in the ability of men and women to work (except that men are slightly better than women at math on average, and women are slightly better verbally). Men are generally hired over women in industries or companies that are already male dominated, and when handling crises is in the job description. Women still earn less money than men for performing the same job
race and ethnicity
ethnic minorities have a harder time getting reviews, get fewer promotions, compensation, and workplace treatment that are consistent with those of the majority
positive diversity climate
in an organization, an environment of inclusiveness and an acceptance of diversity (can lead to increased sales, commitment, and retention, suggesting there are organizational performance gains associated with reducing racial and ethnic discrimination)
some countries have laws against discriminating against people with disabilities in the workplace. Companies who embrace disabilities and exploit those people' strengths are more successful than those who do not. Disabilities are defined as observable physical/mental issues that hinder one from performing one or more of life's activities (alcoholism, back pain, schizophrenia, down syndrome, seizure disorder, and diabetes).
unobservable disabilities that aren't disclosed (impaired hearing, autoimmune disorders, chronic illness or pain, cognitive or learning impairments, sleep disorders, and psychological challenges. Those with hidden disabilities generally fear ostracism and neglect from management when thinking about disclosing the nature of their disability
having experience on the job is a good indicator of performance (positive variable relationship), but may not represent a linear relationship
pervasive issue in all parts of the world in orgs. Religious discrimination claims are on the rise in the US, partially because company's religious policies are complex
the business world has a long way to go in embracing LGBTQ+ diversity. US federal law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation, although 29 states and more than 160 municipalities do. For states/municipalities that do outlaw sexual orientation discrimination, they receive about as many filings for sexual discrimination as they do sex and race discrimination. Studies show that over 90% of fortune 500 companies have policies that cover sexual orientation. While times certainly have changed, sexual orientation and gender identity remain individual differences that organizations must address in eliminating discrimination and promoting diversity
many people carry strong cultural identity, and define themselves in terms of race and ethnicity. An organization seeking to be sensitive to the cultural identities of its employees should look beyond accommodating its majority groups and instead create as much or an individualized approach to practices and norms as possible
an individual capacity to perform the various tasks in a job
the capacity to do mental activities - thinking, reasoning, and problem solving
general mental ability
an overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions
the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics
the process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others
how do you attract, select, develop, and retain diverse employees?
you target recruitment messages to specific demographic groups that are underrepresented in the workforce. Research has shown that women and minorities have greater interest in employers that make special efforts to highlight commitment to diversity in their recruiting materials
diversity in groups
diversity in groups, especially racial diversity, can increase org performance as a whole. The most important aspect of a diverse group that is effective is having members who embrace diversity, are conscientious of differences, and want to work together
more companies are beginning to increase short term international assignments and 55% were looking to increase their long term assignments. the experience of moving to another country and adjusting to its new cultural, interactive, and work-related norms is a major undertaking for both the expatriate and the host country nationals. If the transition is not handled with care, it can result in low employee satisfaction, poor performance, prejudice, and misunderstandings.