Flashcards in Chapter 2-Deep Learning Deck (74)
What 3 theorists have made defining contributions to experiential and developmental education.
John Dewey, Lawrence Kohlberg, and David Kolb.
Surface learning is defined as
acceptance of information and memorization of isolated and unlinked facts.
What is another name for deep processing?
What does deep processing lead to?
(1) understanding and (2) long-term retention of ideas so that they can be used for problem solving in unfamiliar contexts.
Five activities that lead to deep learning. #1
making connections between concepts taught and personal experiences
Five activities that lead to deep learning 2
reflecting on how concrete specifics might indicate abstract patterns
Five activities that lead to deep learning 3
applying ideas taught in class to real-world situations
Five activities that lead to deep learning 4
connecting what one is learning to what one has learned previously
Five activities that lead to deep learning 5
discussing ideas with others while keeping oneself open to enlarging one’s ideas based on encountering others’ ideas
Dominant transmission model of education
An authority passes on information to passive learner-receivers, who are supposed to somehow absorb knowledge.
Another term for dominant transmission model
Banking deposit model of teaching
What are 3 Dewey annotations about learning?
The difference between reception and activity
The need for learner interest and effort as conditions for powerful learning
A description of two levels of experience, one relatively superficial and one deeper
What are 2 other Dewey annotations about learning?
a five-step process for experiential teaching and learning
Dewey’s ideas on the ultimate purposes of education
RE: Dewey, what is Reception Versus Activity in Learning?
Utilizing activity in pedagogy
Engaging learners in confronting problems, posing hypotheses, and taking action based on reasoning.
What did Dewey mean by interest and effort?
Interest: the learner’s curiosity is triggered.
Effort: the tension between means and ends in action.
What did Dewey propose about Interest?
educators instigate students’ interest by helping them identify “for-whats,” or goals for learning,
What did Dewey propose about Effort?
students only learn when they become mentally engaged in solving problems
Students engage when they see how THEY can benefit
For Dewey, experience operates on what two levels?
Reflection on the meaning of the experience
What experiences do students need for deep processing or meaning making?
Secondary experiences of reflection and hypothesis testing
RE: Dewey, what 5 conditions outline the secondary experiences?
(1) indeterminate situations, (2) intellectualization, (3) working hypothesis, (4) reasoning, and (5) action.
What does Dewey mean by Indeterminate Situation?
One in which routine responses are not adequate.
During the reflection of an indeterminate situation, what must students reflect (or pause) on?
They examine the conditions, the resources available, obstacles to action, and ways to overcome these obstacles.
What does Dewey mean by Intellectualization?
Construct a mental representation of the problem
Ponder the situation in a thoughtful way, rather than responding from habit
What does Dewey mean by Working Hypothesis?
Pause further to study the conditions of the situation
Form a working hypothesis
What does Dewey mean by Reasoning?
Thought experiments-test working hypotheses in light of the knowledge available.
What does Dewey mean by Action?
Student does not intellectualize but takes action to help resolve the issue.
RE: Dewey, what is the purpose of education based on his two levels?
Proximate or immediate
RE: Dewey, what is the purpose of the proximate learning?
To apply thinking and skills to real-world problems.
EX: counselors’ performance, test interpretation or applying ethics
RE: Dewey, what is the purpose of the ultimate learning?
Promote social good