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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Culture Deck (19)
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1

Culture

All the socially transmitted ideas, practices, values, beliefs, languages, symbols, ideologies and material objects that people create to deal with real life problems. They enable people to adapt to, and thrive in, their environments.

2

Cultural Universals

Examples include:
Bodily adornment
Sports
Gift Giving
Social Institutions

3

Cultural Surprises

Being surprised by the practices or beliefs of a different culture- either when travelling to a different country/region, or in talking to someone from another country

4

Example of Cultural Surprised (discussed in class)

Gelato - parents bringing young children out to gelato at midnight.
Social norms of parenting vary cross-culturally.

5

Ethnocentrism

One's own practices/beliefs are superior; tendency to judge other cultural practices based exclusively by the practices of our own

6

Cultural Relativism

all cultural practices have equal value

7

Ideal versus Real Culture

A gap exists between what we say and what we do - very often, our behaviours fall short of our beliefs.

8

Examples of Ideal vs. Real Culture

environmentalism (many people say that they recycle, but don’t actually do it that often), consumption of alcohol (people underestimated their alcohol consumption because it is socially undesirable)

9

Three types of Contemporary Culture

Globalization
Post-Modernism
Consumerism

10

Globalization

The process by which formerly separated economies, states, and cultures are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence and connectedness, based on increased levels of migration, communication and rationalization.

11

Diasporia

the migration of a group of people that share national and ethnic identity (ex: Chinatown)

12

Rationalization

What the modern world is, whereby modern bureaucracies are standardized and uniform, so that everyone goes through the same experience. There can be irrationality where the system cannot deviate from certain steps when faced with exceptional cases.

13

McDonaldization

An example of rationalization. The way that all McDonalds are the same around the world has been applied to our everyday institutions.

14

Reasons for Rationalization

efficiency
calculability
predictability
control

15

Sub-Culture

a distinctive set of values, norms and practices within a larger culture

16

Counterculture

a subversive culture. Oppose dominant values and seek to replace them.

17

Post-Modernism

Characterized by an eclectic mixing of cultural elements, the erosion of authority, and the decline of consensus around core values.
-a response to the major changes that were caused by globalization, such as major political and social movements that changed the shape of our society
-Knowledge and truth are fluid and shaped and reshaped through a broad range of discourse, for they are viewed as situation specific: truth reflects power relations, and there is a rejection of a single explanatory framework

18

Examples of Post-Modernism

Music (mixing of styles, breaking past rules)
Architecture (mixing styles, different meanings and interpretations)
Religion (people blending different elements of different religions)

19

Consumerism

defining ourselves in terms of the goods we purchase