Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Culture Deck (19)
All the socially transmitted ideas, practices, values, beliefs, languages, symbols, ideologies and material objects that people create to deal with real life problems. They enable people to adapt to, and thrive in, their environments.
Being surprised by the practices or beliefs of a different culture- either when travelling to a different country/region, or in talking to someone from another country
Example of Cultural Surprised (discussed in class)
Gelato - parents bringing young children out to gelato at midnight.
Social norms of parenting vary cross-culturally.
One's own practices/beliefs are superior; tendency to judge other cultural practices based exclusively by the practices of our own
all cultural practices have equal value
Ideal versus Real Culture
A gap exists between what we say and what we do - very often, our behaviours fall short of our beliefs.
Examples of Ideal vs. Real Culture
environmentalism (many people say that they recycle, but don’t actually do it that often), consumption of alcohol (people underestimated their alcohol consumption because it is socially undesirable)
Three types of Contemporary Culture
The process by which formerly separated economies, states, and cultures are becoming tied together and people are becoming increasingly aware of their growing interdependence and connectedness, based on increased levels of migration, communication and rationalization.
the migration of a group of people that share national and ethnic identity (ex: Chinatown)
What the modern world is, whereby modern bureaucracies are standardized and uniform, so that everyone goes through the same experience. There can be irrationality where the system cannot deviate from certain steps when faced with exceptional cases.
An example of rationalization. The way that all McDonalds are the same around the world has been applied to our everyday institutions.
Reasons for Rationalization
a distinctive set of values, norms and practices within a larger culture
a subversive culture. Oppose dominant values and seek to replace them.
Characterized by an eclectic mixing of cultural elements, the erosion of authority, and the decline of consensus around core values.
-a response to the major changes that were caused by globalization, such as major political and social movements that changed the shape of our society
-Knowledge and truth are fluid and shaped and reshaped through a broad range of discourse, for they are viewed as situation specific: truth reflects power relations, and there is a rejection of a single explanatory framework
Examples of Post-Modernism
Music (mixing of styles, breaking past rules)
Architecture (mixing styles, different meanings and interpretations)
Religion (people blending different elements of different religions)