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1

6 reasons to study theoretical perspective

Understanding of the present
Guide to action
Source of new idea
Clues to meaning or your managers deciiosn
Clues to meaning of outside events
Producing positive results

2

Historical perspective

1911-1950’s

Includes classical, behaviororal and quantitative

3

Contemporary perspective

1960’s-present

Includes systems, contingency and quality-management

4

Classical viewpoint

Emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently, assumed that people are rattional.

Two branches, scientific and administrative

5

Scientific management

Manangemt Approach tjat emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers

6

Administrative management

Management concerned with managing the total organization

7

Behavioural viewpoint

Emphasizes the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees towards achievement

8

Hawthorne effect

Emplyees work harder if they receive added attention, if they think managers care about their welfare and if supervisors pay special attention to them

9

Human relations movement

The movement that proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity

10

Behavioural science approach

Relies on scientific research for developing theories about humans behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers

11

Quantitative management

The application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations.

12

Two branches of quantitative management are:

Management science

Operations management

13

Management science

Sometimes called operation research

Branch of quantitative management that focusses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making

14

Operations management

Branch of quantitative management; focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organizations products or services more effectively

15

System

Set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose

16

Systems viewpoint

Perspective that regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts

17

Subsystems

The collection of parts making up the entire system

18

Four parts of a system

1) inputs
2) transformational processes
3) outputs
4) feedback

19

Inputs

The people, money, information, and equipment, and materials required to produce an organizations goods and services

20

Transformational processes

An organizations capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs

21

Outputs

The products, services, profits, losses, emplyee satusfarcion or discontent; and the like that are produced by the orgnazeion

22

Feedback

Information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affect the inputs

23

Closes system

A system that has little interaction with its environment

24

Open system

System that continually interacts with its environment

25

Synergy

Situation in which the economic value of seperate, related businesses under one ownership and management is greater together than the business are worth soeratrly

26

Complexity theory

The study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems

27

Contingency Viewpoint

The belief that managers approach should vary according to - that is, be contingent on - the individual and the environmental situation

28

Beliefs and shit

Is the belief worth challenging
Is the belief universally valid
How does this belief server the interests of its adherents
Have our choices and assumptions conspired to make this belief self fulfilling

29

Evidence based management

Translation of principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process

30

Quality-management viewpoint

Perspective that focusses on quality control, quality assurance, and total quality management