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1

Research enterprise: why psychology is empirical?

dealing with data and observations dealing with human or animal behvaiour, study a lot of different individuals to derive these basic principles

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scientific approach

psychologists use scientific approach, assume events are governed by lawful order, what the laws of behaviour are. It is a standardized way of making observations, gathering data, forming/testing theories, interpreting results

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Qualitative Research

could you tell me about x... (asking the patients to describe, interviews, etc)

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Quantitative Research

Looking at numbers and statistics etc

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Goals of Scientific Enterprise

1. measurement and description
2. Understanding and prediction
3.application and control

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Measurement and Description

goals of scientific enterprise Develop techniques to measure and describe behaviour. (ex: stress, physiological markers, for a study we can measure all or just some)

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Understanding and Prediction

a goal of scientific enterprise which variables we are testing and how we test them, also predicting the outcome

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hypothesis

a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables (the relationship we think exists in the variables i'm looking at, the outcome we predict or expect)

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Variables

Measurable conditions, events or characteristics, that are controlled or observed in a study (age, gender, sports, love)

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Application and control

a goal of scientific enterprise application to everyday problems, base research- foundation for other research, creating a theory

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theory

System of interrelated ideas used to explain or organize a set of observations

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Shacter

We have the same physiological effects but different feeling

13

Dutton and Aron

1974- can fear increase sexual attraction? suspension bridge (scary), and low (not scary) bridge, half were sent on the scary and the other half low, after they cross met a woman who gave them her number for info then were given a TAT test, more of the men from the scary bridge called her and saw sexual themes in the TAT test. they interpreted their physical reaction to fear as sexual attraction

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TAT

Thematic Apperception Test

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Scientific Investigation steps

1. formulate testable hypothesis
2. Select research method and design study
3. collect the data
4. analyze the data and draw conclusions
5. report the findings

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Formulate testable hypothesis

first step of the scientific investigation: must be precise, variables clearly defined, operational definition: describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable

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Select a research method and design study

second step of the scientific investigation: how should we study the question, experiments, case studies, surveys etc.

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participants or subjects

persons/ animals whose behaviour is being systematically observed

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Collect the Data

third step of scientific investigation: procedures for making empirical observations (direct, questionnaire, interview, etc)

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Analyze the data and draw conclusions

fourth step of scientific investigation: use statistical results to test hypothesis

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report the findings

fifth and final step of the scientific investigation writing the paper, published the paper (peer-reviewed journals)
Presenting the paper

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Peer reviewed journal

a periodical that published technical and scholarly material

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Advantages of Scientific Method

gives clarity and precision, suppose to be relatively intolerant to errors-- replication crisis

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Replication Crisis

research journals were publishing things that were not discovered, thats a tendency for people to only show certain results, so we want to make sure we replicate our results so we can stand firmly behind them

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Research Method:

Approach to observe, measure, manipulate and control variables in empirical studies

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What are research methods

experimental, descriptive/ correlational

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Experiment

Manipulate a variable to observe changes in a second variable (detection of cause and effect)

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Independent variable (IV)

variable tha tis manipulated or controlled

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Dependent variable (DV)

variable that is measured and thought to be affected by IV

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Experimental group

receives special treatment with respect to IV