Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100)
4 categories of carbon compounds
Characteristics of Carbon (3)
-has 4 valence electrons
-bind readily with each other to form a carbon backbone
-neutral backbone carries a variety of functional group
very large organic molecules
made up of repetitive monomers
identical or smaller subunits
converted into glucose
oxidized to make ATP
3 important monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
What type of sugar is glucose?
3 important disaccharides
sucrose, maltose, lactose
3 polysaccharides in Humans
glycogen, starch, cellulose
What is the purpose of glycogen?
energy storage of polysaccharides in animals
What is the purpose of starch?
energy storage in plants
What is the purpose of cellulose in plants?humans?
structural molecule of plant cell walls; fiber in our diet (helps move materials through intestine)
covalently bond to lipid or protein
What conjugated carbs are apart of the external cell surface coat?
glycoproteins & glycolipids
purpose of proteoglycan? (2)
5 primary types of lipids in humans
less oxidized than carbs
What type of fat are triglycercides?
structure of triglycerides
3 fatty acids covalently bond to glycerol
triglycerides when liquid___, when solid____
primary function of triglycerides? (3)
fatty acid (2)
-chain of 4 to 24 carbon atoms
-contain a carboxyl group on one end and methyl group on the other
saturated fatty acids vs. unsaturated fatty acid
saturated:carbon atom saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated:contains C=C bonds
What types of fats can not be synthesized by the body?
essential fatty acids
similar to neutral fat, but 1 fatty acid is replaced by phosphate group
chemical messenger between cells
-"parent" steroid from which other steroids are synthesized
-synthesized only by animals
which is the good/bad cholesterol?
good: HDL (lower ratio of lipids to proteins)
bad: LDL (high ratio of lipids to proteins)