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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (100)
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61

4 categories of carbon compounds

-carbohydrates (sugar)
-lipids (fat)
-protein
-nucleotides

62

Characteristics of Carbon (3)

-has 4 valence electrons
-bind readily with each other to form a carbon backbone
-neutral backbone carries a variety of functional group

63

macromolecules

very large organic molecules

64

polymers/polymerization

made up of repetitive monomers

65

monomers

identical or smaller subunits

66

carbohydrates (4)

hydrophilic
CH2O
converted into glucose
oxidized to make ATP

67

3 important monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

68

What type of sugar is glucose?

blood sugar

69

3 important disaccharides

sucrose, maltose, lactose

70

3 polysaccharides in Humans

glycogen, starch, cellulose

71

What is the purpose of glycogen?

energy storage of polysaccharides in animals

72

What is the purpose of starch?

energy storage in plants

73

What is the purpose of cellulose in plants?humans?

structural molecule of plant cell walls; fiber in our diet (helps move materials through intestine)

74

conjugated carbohydrates

covalently bond to lipid or protein

75

What conjugated carbs are apart of the external cell surface coat?

glycoproteins & glycolipids

76

purpose of proteoglycan? (2)

cell adhesion
lubrication

77

5 primary types of lipids in humans

triglycerides
steriods
eicosaniods
fatty acids
phospholipids

78

Lipids (2)

hydrophobic
less oxidized than carbs

79

What type of fat are triglycercides?

neutral fat

80

structure of triglycerides

3 fatty acids covalently bond to glycerol

81

triglycerides when liquid___, when solid____

oil; fat

82

primary function of triglycerides? (3)

energy storage
insulation
shock absorption

83

fatty acid (2)

-chain of 4 to 24 carbon atoms
-contain a carboxyl group on one end and methyl group on the other

84

saturated fatty acids vs. unsaturated fatty acid

saturated:carbon atom saturated with hydrogen
unsaturated:contains C=C bonds

85

What types of fats can not be synthesized by the body?

essential fatty acids

86

phospholipid

similar to neutral fat, but 1 fatty acid is replaced by phosphate group

87

eicosaniods

chemical messenger between cells

88

cholesterol (2)

-"parent" steroid from which other steroids are synthesized
-synthesized only by animals

89

which is the good/bad cholesterol?

good: HDL (lower ratio of lipids to proteins)
bad: LDL (high ratio of lipids to proteins)

90

peptide

2 or more amino acids